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One could say, that by deploying a blockchain in a private environment, it stops being a blockchain. Let's compare a blockchain to a household book.


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When I have such a book, in a drawer in my office, I'm the only one who can read it and change it. So, when for some reason I bought a pair of expensive shoes, and a week later want to hide that fact, I can simply remove that line from the book. Or overwrite it with "pair of scissors". And boom. I never bought shoes according to the book. But if that book is accessible amongst family members, for everyone to review, or copy, it becomes a little more "immutable". I can still remove the "expensive shoes" line, but people might know, and family-members can call me out on it.

With even more people who can access the book why not mail a weekly copy to all family and friends? A blockchain, however, has an additional trait: through applied cryptography, it allows one to easily detect when a line is changed. So all people who have a copy can detect with certainty and easily that something has been changed that should not have been changed. But this trait is only useful if other stakeholders can get copies.

In a private blockchain it is really easy to change something, even when that change has a big, clearly visible effect. Simply because there is no-one to witness that clearly visible effect! The public part, is what ensures the permanency.

CRITICAL THINKING - Fallacies: Formal and Informal Fallacies

Not because it is impossible to change something it is perfectly doable but because that change, or its cryptographically effects, are seen by, other participants. Bitcoin, for example is not permanent either, in theoretic sense.

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If enough participants decide that the 0. Bitcoins Immutability stems from the fact that anyone can detect such a change, and that a vast majority then needs to acknowledge that change. The public part furthermore ensures that those participants will get hurt when making such a retrospective change: they have a stake in the Bitcoin blockchain, which will decrease in value because they just have proved that this blockchain can be retrospectively mutated.

In a blockchain, public, or private, immutability is more of an agreement amongst all participants that we won't change history. In a private blockchain that promise is easy to make. And even easier to enforce: if Mallory changes some old record, just throw him out! With that in mind: immutability is an agreement, so you can just choose any database, even a shared excel sheet, and then promise each other never to change anything.

All you need is detection that something was changed, which most database systems or logging will offer. You can even add some cryptography to it to make tampering more obvious or easier to revert or deal with. This is very simple actually.


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If you can control who has access, you control who decides what the truth is. Therefore, you hold the keys to change history in any way that you want. In the analogy of the household book, the person who controls who may write in the book and who may read from it, is, by extension, the person who controls what will get in the book and what not.

That person is, by extension, also the one in full control of rewriting the history. Because when the access-controller wants something changed, he can simply remove anyone opposing that change from write and read access and then promote himself or a proxy to be able to write.

The Private Blockchain Fallacy

And then change it. If other people can still read, they might notice that history is rewritten, but will lack all power to do something about it. The truth is what is in the blockchain, and they cannot change that, because of lack of permissions. It matters little how clumsy or detectable such a retrospective change is: the one with access control can, through that power, make these changes. Immutability in a blockchain is not something magical that comes from a fancy technology.

But it comes from the conditions a blockchain requires: the environment, or "world" in which it runs make it immutable. The irony is that, actually, there is a magic technology that ensures immutability.

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And that technology is called blockchain. And hence has to be a public blockchain. We've come full-circle. The opposite of distribution is centralization. The tales of The Silmarillion are set in an age when Morgoth, the first Dark Lord, dwelt in Middle-Earth, and the High Elves made war upon him for the recovery of the Silmarils, the jewels containing the pure light of Valinor.

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Included in the book are several shorter works. The Ainulindale is a myth of the Creation and in the Valaquenta the nature and powers of each of the gods is described. The abridged versions of the original stories are now joined with new, unabridged recordings of the episodes that were not included in the original abridged version of the audiobook. These additional episodes feature a star-studded cast of narrators to coincide with the upcoming release of the film.

Max Brooks will be reprising his role as The Interviewer. In this new classic of apocalyptic fiction that feels all too real, the Zombie War came unthinkably close to eradicating humanity. The documentary-style oral history records the testimony of men, women, and sometimes children who came face-to-face with the living, or at least the undead, hell of that dreadful time. Featuring five more hours of previously unrecorded content, this full-cast recording is read by F. On the harsh and wild frontier of the American West, Alexandra Bergson struggles to fulfill her father's dying wish of establishing his family on the Nebraska table lands.

Through hard times and abundant, through love and loss, through joy and suffering, Alexandra challenges both her family and the land in her quiet, honest way. Cather's realistic depiction of life on the prairie is anchored by a smart, strong, independent heroine and heart-achingly beautiful prose which evokes both the melancholy and the awe-inspiring beauty of middle America at the turn of the century. Alice's innocent trip chasing a white rabbit leads her on a wild and fanciful adventure full of unusual happenings, strange people, and tales that become "curiouser and curiouser.

Fallacy (Rewritten #1) by Morgan Bauman

One of the all-time great books for young readers, Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is an exciting and unusual tale that can entertain both children and adults alike. Account Options Sign in. Top Charts. New Arrivals. Rewritten 1: Fallacy Morgan Bauman November 13, Narrated by Alexis O'Donahue 5 hr 25 min.


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Jauge's grin vanished. Reviews Review Policy. Published on. Export option. Learn More. Bauman really jam packs the novel full of details and information — but not in an overwhelming way. The information is slowly given to the reader. Another thing I liked was the characters. While there are only female characters read the book to find out why! Ray, who is ten years old, is our main character. She is described as very angry to start, but that fades away more to a general confusion and frustration with her situation— which is entirely understandable and exactly how most ten-year-olds would react.

Laenyn is our other main character; she is twenty years old, extremely duty driven, and rule bound. There is a bit of mystery surrounding both of them, which is great. What I liked the most about this novel was how much it hooked me. There were times that I thought both Ray and Haven were a little more precocious than was realistic.