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Teilen Sie diese Seite auf Twitter. The development, design, manufacturing and maintenance of modern engineering products is a very expensive and complex process. Today, thousands to millions of CAD files of a car or an air plane may occupy terabytes of distributed secondary and tertiary storage.
The main objective of this project is to find techniques to manage effectively and efficiently huge enterprise-wide amounts of spatial data and to evaluate them in an industrial environment. As a main application, we focus on collision detection and within-distance queries for digital mockup and on similarity search in large CAD databases.
For an efficient query processing, conservative approximations of the CAD models are stored in a database in order to support geometric queries like collision or within-distance queries in a multi-tiered fashion. A selective and complete filtering mechanism determines only a small amount of the CAD parts to be downloaded from the database into main memory for exact geometric analysis.
The efficiency is in particular realized by index structures we developed, which can be easily integrated into industrial strength object-relational database systems. In addition, we analyse which degree of redundancy is most suitable for high resolution spatial objects. Collision detection and within-distance queries, which are very important for digital mockup DMU , can be carried out interactively using our approach, instead of running time-consuming batch jobs on the whole database overnight.
Furthermore, our approach for the efficient management of spatially extended objects can be applied on many other modern database applications including geographic information systems GIS , medical imaging, computer- aided design CAD , molecular biology or time-critical virtual reality applications, e.
Modern analysis methods in molecular biology produce a tremendous amount of data. To make the full use out of this data, automatic tools for knowledge discovery and data analysis are needed. Our project "Molecular Bioinformatics" tries to address this task of supporting the automatic analysis of molecular biology data. The first sub-project aims at supporting the 1:n protein docking problem, i. A typical application is the prediction of the effect of specific drugs and their side effects to the human immune system.
To predict the docking partners, potential docking sites are located on the surface of all proteins in a database for a given query molecule. Specific shape descriptions of these sites enable an efficient search in the database. The second sub-project deals with the cluster analysis of gene expression data. Micro array chip technology allows monitoring the expression level of thousands of genes synchronously. From the expression level of a gene, biologists are able to make implications about the amount of the gene product, it codes for e.
To analyse which genes are co-expressed under which conditions, tools for clustering are used. Since the raw data is very high-dimensional and genes typically cluster are co-expressed differently under varying conditions, the development of new clustering methods is required, for example algorithms for subspace clustering. All offers were declined. The research and teaching unit on Programming and Software Engineering PST is focussing on practical applications and theoretical foundations of object-oriented software engineering methods, new generation CASE systems, and new programming languages.
Formal methods involve making mathematical models of software and deriving properties of the software from the models. This parallels practice in other areas of engineering, but is more difficult for software, due to the extreme complexity of modern software systems, and the unfamiliarity of engineers with the complex discrete mathematics required. The key for this task is to integrate semiformal engineering methods and notations, such as UML, with formal methods in order to provide a basis for mathematical analysis, validation, maintenance and verification of requirements, design specifications and software systems.
A second central theme is the development of new techniques for object-oriented, constraint based, functional programming. This includes the study of foundational aspects of programming languages, such as semantics, correctness, specification construction, and design and development calculi as well as the application of these methods and principles to the design and implementation of software systems. Actual application areas are concurrent and distributed programming, global computing, Internet programming and multimedia systems. PST has particular competence in object-oriented software development of mobile systems, in Java programming and the design of web based software systems.
PST researchers have developed the first formal semantics for multi-threading in Java and the first provably correct code generation algorithm, generating concurrent Java programs from UML designs. Model checking is an established technique for fully automatic proving temporal properties of reactive systems. The main limitation of model checking applications is its restriction to finite state systems.
By using abstraction techniques, this limitation can be ameliorated to a certain degree. Consequently, model checking techniques have also been applied more recently to checking software and programs. In our research, we aim at applying model checking to software designs rather than implementations. On the one hand, software models in the early design phases tend to be more abstract and thus more amenable to model checking.
On the other hand, development costs can be greatly reduced by finding errors as early as possible. Moreover, UML interactions can be viewed as defining desired or forbidden runs of collaborating UML state machines, thus defining properties in an easy-to-use language. Development of the application-oriented tool HUGO is complemented by theoretical research in abstraction techniques. Predicate diagrams pave the way for specifying and proving abstractions of infinite state systems diagrammatically and thus directly lend themselves for inclusion in the UML-based model checking tool HUGO.
Work in the area of Temporal Logic of Actions TLA investigates a diagram-based formalism to verify temporal properties of reactive systems. Diagrams integrate deductive and algorithmic verification techniques for the verification of finite and infinite-state systems, thus combining the expressive power and flexibility of deduction with the automation provided by algorithmic methods. We show that the concept of predicate diagrams can be used to verify not only discrete systems, but also some more complex classes of reactive systems such as real-time systems and parametrised systems.
We prove the completeness of predicate diagrams and study an approach for the generation of predicate diagrams. We develop prototype tools that can be used for supporting the generation of diagrams semi-automatically. We have proposed an extension of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions by spatial modalities for the specification and verification of systems involving mobile code. Similar as in the Ambient Calculus due to Cardelli and Gordon, we model the topological structure of a mobile system as a tree whose edges are labelled by names. The mobility of objects is reflected in the dynamical reconfiguration of this tree.
The main novelty of our approach is a study of notions of refinement appropriate for mobile systems that guide the selection of the spatial modalities of the logic. Specifically, we use names to refer to locations at arbitrary nesting depth rather than just below the current node. In this way, a single agent may be decomposed into a hierarchy of sub objects during a refinement step. A first paper on the logic and its use for the specification and refinement of mobile systems has been published at FASE The logic has meanwhile been applied to the specification of an active traceroute protocol, and we have proved the decidability of its satisfiability and model checking problems.
Work in the area of theoretical foundations of systems specifications centres around the mathematical theory of formal models for systems specification, development, transformation and verification. We investigate the algebraic and coalgebraic foundations of specifications and their relationships. An interesting application is the use of domain theory for computing provably correct solutions of ordinary differential equations. In the area of algebraic specifications and term rewriting we have designed Timed Rewriting Logic and the language Timed Maude for specifying real-time object-oriented systems and we have developed techniques for extracting programs from proofs of structured specifications.
Timed Rewriting Logic TRL is a new variant of Rewriting Logic, an algebraic formalism which allows the dynamic behaviour of systems to be axiomatised using rewrite rules. In TRL rewrite rules can be labelled with time constraints and this provides a means of reasoning about time elapse in real-time systems. Timed Maude has been successfully applied to the specification of several pragmatic modeling languages including Message Sequence Charts and SDL. Extraction of Structured Programs Our technique for obtaining correct programs from proofs produces correct high-level programs from parameterised specifications written in a subset of CASL.
The technique is based on a combination of standard constructive mathematical proof methods due to Curry and Howard together with structural modifications deriving from the proof calculi for structured specifications. Although programs extracted by the Curry-Howard process can be very cumbersome, we use a number of simplifications that ensure that the programs extracted are in a language close to SML.
The notion of coalgebras for a functor on a concrete category provides a general framework which captures various types of state transition systems and process calculi. On this level of generality, we are interested in formal logics, which can be used to specify and reason about coalgebraically modeled systems. Our line of research follows three main threads, detailed below:. Duality Theory This branch exploits the fact that coalgebras are the formal duals of algebras, and tries to build bridges between both areas. Therefore, the goals are the formulation of coalgebras and their logics in a category-independent manner, and use this description to dualise results which are already known in the algebraic setting, e.
Birkhoff's variety theorem. Formal Systems for Coalgebraic Logics Here, we are investigating proof systems which can be used along with coalgebraic logic. This requires that the logic is equipped with a concrete syntax, and that the relevant proof rules are isolated.
The focus of research here is soundness, completeness, and the expressiveness of the logics. Specification Logics The portion of the research concerned with specification logics tries to apply the general results obtained in the other two branches to the problem of specifying properties of concretely presented state based systems. Apart from providing denotational semantics for programming languages, domain theory can also be used as a foundation for exact computation in analysis. The translation of classical theorems of analysis into domain theory then provides exact and provably correct algorithms for computations in analysis.
This general paradigm is substantiated with case studies in several areas, including the provably correct solution of ordinary differential equations and the implicit function theorem. The programming language Java combines the object-oriented programming paradigm with the concurrent programming paradigm through tightly integrated support for multi-threaded programming.
In particular, Java features a full-fledged memory consistency protocol for synchronising the local working memories of threads and the main memory. Java thus poses the challenge to integrate the low-level description of the memory model with the high-level language constructs into a modular, operational semantics which is parameterised in the details of the memory protocol.
We defined a mathematical structure, called event spaces, that declaratively captures the memory model specification. An operational semantics for the Java language constructs is combined with the event spaces by memory action primitives. In fact, the parameterisability of the approach has been proved by showing that an optimisation by so-called prescient store action is correct with respect to the original memory model. Moreover, event spaces have been demonstrated to provide a rich mathematical structure, viz. The event-based, operational semantics of Java does not answer the question for specifying and proving properties of Java programs directly and sufficiently.
On the side of event spaces the logic of configuration theories, which is currently under thorough investigation, can be used to reason on the properties of memory models. For object-orientation itself, object specifications define rules for recursive object behaviour generalising the approach by Abadi and Leino.
Architecture-based approaches have been promoted as a means of controlling the complexity of system construction and evolution, namely for providing systems with the agility required to operate in turbulent environments and adapt very quickly to changes in the enterprise world. Recent technological advances in communication and distribution have made mobility an additional factor of complexity, one for which current architectural concepts and techniques are not prepared for.
In a first step an extension of UML activity diagrams was defined to model the location of objects and how mobility primitives change the location of objects. How the thread of control is affected by objects changing their location is visualised by using the extension of UML sequence diagrams. To model the dynamic evolution of the interaction structure between multiple objects, UML state charts were extended by multiple input queues and by the notion of localities. A new logic, extending the Temporal Logic of Actions TLA by Lamport, has been proposed for considering spatio-temporal issues in the specification and the analysis of the behaviour of mobile systems.
The logic extends TLA by providing operators for the description of properties of trees, as well as changes in their structure, intuitively representing the hierarchical structure of administrative domains. In the research area of Agent-Technology we have introduced an new approach AgentComponent that integrates software component features into agent technology. Component concepts like encapsulation, interfaces, parametrisation have been found useful for integration. Using this technology combination agents grow up to be reusable and parametrisable in different contexts.
According to this approach a visual editor AgentComponent Tool for AgentComponents has been developed and is still in development. Moreover AgentComponent-Systems can be visually parametrised and changed during runtime. This is a very useful feature to test the designed AgentComponent-Systems without having to stop the whole application. Also in the research area of Agent-Technology we have designed and implemented BABSy, an accounting system that helps automate payment in an agent-based electronic commerce environment. Web-Engineering is a new upcoming discipline that focuses on systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to the cost-effective development and evolution of high-quality Web-based systems and applications.
The discipline of Web Engineering tries to prevent a new software crisis that may occur due to the omnipresence of Web applications and their strong cross-dependency. Web Engineering incorporates some of the well-known and successful traditional software engineering principles and practices, adapting them to the particular requirements of Web applications. But Web Engineering is inherently different from software engineering in that it must also take many aspects of other disciplines into account, such as:.
In our research, we aim at supporting the modeling of Web applications and the model-driven implementation of Web systems. The UWE profile includes stereotypes and tagged values defined for the modeling elements needed to model the different aspects of Web applications, such as navigation, presentation, Web processes and adaptation aspects.
The UWE design approach for workflow-based Web applications consists of introducing specific process classes that are part of a separate process model with a clear interface to the navigation model. An instance of Smex Web has been implemented to give students the possibility to practice and deepen their knowledge in a time- and local independent fashion.
The aim of the MMiSS project is to set up a multimedia Internet-based adaptive educational system, covering the whole subject of Safe Systems. The area of "Safe Systems" has in the last few years become increasingly important. Software is increasingly used to control security-critical embedded systems, in aeroplanes, spaceships, and cars; and electronic trading over the Internet, with its associated security risks, is rapidly expanding.
All this requires qualitatively and quantitatively better training in Safe Systems. To go with the planned deployment at universities, a number of well-known German companies have already expressed, through the various industrial contacts of the project partners, an interest in measures for further training in their own workforce. An important issue of global climate change concerns changes in the hydrological cycle and the investigation of ways for sustainable future water use. To improve the quality of predictions and global change simulations one has to take into account that many processes of various fields are involved and influence each other.
Hence, a key challenge for integrative simulation and analysis is the integration of the various simulation models of the different disciplines ranging from natural sciences, such as meteorology, hydrology, remote sensing, ground- and surface water management, glaciology, and plant ecology, to social sciences, such as environmental psychology and economy, agriculture and tourism. Many water-related conflicts arise in this area of almost The development of DANUBIA is based on object-oriented software engineering and Web engineering methods and on the Unified Modeling Language UML which is used by all partners as a common graphical notation for modeling the integrative aspects of the system.
The crucial concepts behind the design of DANUBIA concern the network and interface structure, the modeling of space and layered simulation areas and the temporal coordination of local models by a global time controller which constitutes the heart of any integrative DANUBIA simulation.
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The architecture of a software system is now widely recognised as the key success factor when it comes to devising, maintaining, and reusing software components, and evolving large scale software systems. One important part of software architecture is the communication between all stakeholders of a software system. Another is to achieve a sound fundament for the software in order to achieve maintainability for the system and re-usability for its parts.
Our research is based on two main strands: the modeling aspect and the technical realisation aspect. Modeling of software systems, especially in the early development phases, involves much effort in communicating with the stakeholders to investigate all requirements and needs the stakeholders have. To communicate results the Unified Modeling Language UML is a first choice, as it is the current de facto standard modeling language for software. The technical realisation aspect is another crucial step to achieve a software that meets all stakeholders' needs and is maintainable and yet extensible.
In this way we achieve a smooth crossover from architectural models to an implementation by providing architectural concepts as fundamental parts in a programming language. Lately agile software development processes gained a lot of attention. In contrast to traditional software development processes, these processes promise to provide business value faster than traditional processes and to better cope with changes coming from changing and unclear requirements. We have successfully applied these processes in the context of the EU project CARUSO, whose objective was the design and implementation of a framework for customised customer relationship management CRM applications.
Further, we have started to integrate formal methods with these processes. Performance assessment of software from the early design phase through the implementation has been subject to a great variety of approaches in the past. Performance aspects have to be considered and laid down in certain documents.
Thus typical artifacts are created and have to be integrated in the software design as well as in the software development process. We use UML diagrams to describe all essential aspects of a software and its environment. Dynamic properties of a software are laid down in activity diagrams.
The environment that will execute the software is modeled by class diagrams. Finally a simulating software configured by the environment description rates the software model. Constraint Programming is an established paradigm for solving a wide class of problems. Constraint Programming languages allow the programmer to specify a set of relations constraints that hold between entities; a constraint solver computes possible values for those entities that satisfy all constraints. One focus of our work was the declarative specification of constraint solvers.
This can be achieved with Constraint Handling Rules CHR , a programming language based on a committed-choice rewriting system with guarded rules. CHR allow the introduction of user defined constraints into the language. Recent work focused on automatic analysis of properties of CHR programs like termination or complexity. A further area of research was the integration of soft constraint propagation into CHR. We also built several applications using CHR, for example a rent advisor or a program to compute the optimal placement of base stations in wireless indoor communication networks.
Constraint Languages are usually integrated into a logic programming language, giving rise to Constraint Logic Programming languages CLPs. In recent years there has been interest in combining constraint languages with other programming paradigms to address insufficiencies of CLPs for certain problem domains. We have developed a family of formal calculi the Constraint Lambda Calculi that provide a foundation for integrating functional programming languages and constraint solvers, proved confluence properties for the constraint lambda calculi and introduced a denotational semantics.
The constraint lambda calculi are parametric in the constraint domain over which they operate and allow the meta-level specification of search and result strategies. They provide most of the facilities of CLPs but can also address problems that are difficult to solve in logic programming languages like the interaction of side effects and constraint solving. Furthermore they allow new advanced programming techniques like hierarchical constraint solver determination.
In View-Oriented Programming , we look at a software system from several angles which has the benefit of aiding construction and comprehension of such a system. Each such angle represents an aspect or view of a system and is expressed in a formal language visual or other. This allows one to perform consistency checks between the views or to query them for further information.
We have taken three approaches towards solutions in this area: The first one is to model-check consistency in UML state machines and interactions see section on model-checking, project Hugo. The second one is algebraic and formalises views as sentences in a language. We allow views to be expressed in different languages and semantics and compare them for consistency using a heterogeneous pull-back construction. The third approach is an extension of Hyperspaces that allows individual methods to be partially distributed into several different Hyper-slices.
Generative Programming is about improving programmer productivity by raising the level of abstraction: Programming usually means translating a specification from a problem domain which can be expressed in human language or in a notation used by domain experts to one in the solution domain usually an executable program expressed in a programming language. Generative programming aids abstraction and communication between domain experts and programmers by letting the latter develop in a notation that is close to the problem domain and by translating it to a language in the solution domain.
A related problem is that of Software Product Lines SPLs : Very often, one needs to produce a family of software systems that are very similar. SPLs is a technique for constructing this family from a common set of base resources. Work in this area started with a diploma thesis on an editor for a generative programming infrastructure that would later be named AHEAD. AHEAD automatically synthesises members of a product line that can contain a wide array of artifacts written in human language, domain expert notation, programming language etc.
Furthermore, we developed a formal foundation for AHEAD, Graft to more precisely define its concepts and to analyse software systems developed with it. An analysis can check for semantic and formal correctness and provide information about the system to the programmer. A deductive Web query language, called Xcerpt, is under development    .
Xcerpt is based on a novel form of unification, called "simulation unification" . A first prototype has been completed and is used with an original visual programming interface  . Elements for a formalisation of the declarative semantics of Xcerpt are given in . The procedural semantics and the run time system of Xcerpt are based on constraint reasoning . Temporal types and operations for Xcerpt are discussed in . First experiments with Xcerpt point to the conciseness and simplicity of Xcerpt programs compared to e.
XQuery programs and suggest that Xcerpt might considerably ease the implementation of adaptive Web systems. The notion aims at sharing subparts common to the various answers to a same query. A prototype system has been developed that computes complete answer aggregates to queries expressed in an XPath-like language and using which a user can "browse" aggregated answers. The prototype, its application to test beds, and its visual user interface are described in . The approach first translates general XPath queries into equivalent XPath queries without so-called reverse axes such as "parent" or "ancestor" .
Then, such XPath expressions are translated into networks of push-down automata. The method has a polynomial combined complexity. A prototype and its evaluation on bench marks are reported about in . The method, its implementation, and its performances on bench marks are described in . Logic provides with a convenient basis for declarative languages such as Xcerpt.
However, pure logics provide little means for modeling real world notions and objects. The focus is on the modeling of "common sense" time and calendric and location notions . These notions are becoming more and more important on the Web with the emergence of mobile Web applications. A related project is devoted to integrating elementary arithmetics in description logics and ontology languages . The goal of both projects is to enrich logics and logic-based languages with numerical aspects of sets such as price, age, duration, etc.
The implementation of adaptive Web systems using Web query languages is investigated   . First investigations suggest that the approach should considerably simplify the implementation of adaptive Web systems. The analysis, integration, optimisation, and automatic generation of rule-based constraint solvers has been investigated focusing on constraint solvers implemented in the rule-based language CHR.
Methods for the analysis and optimisation of constraint solvers are presented in  . Methods for an automatic generation of constraint solvers from complete, incomplete, and intentional specifications are described in        . The integration of constraint solvers is addressed in . Related results and constraint programming tools tools are presented in      . Various applications of logic, e. A formalisation of a refinement of the stable model theory in terms of a is given in . The salient aspect of this formalisation is that it is expressed in the manner of classical model theory in terms of a truth-function function defined recursively on the structure of formulas.
This definition makes it possible to evaluates logic programs according to the refined stable model semantics using standard proof methods such as resolution. A deduction method complete for both refutation and finite satisfiability is presented in  .
The generation of minimal models, an issue of importance for artificial intelligence applications such as planning, is addressed in the framework of the SATCHMO theorem prover in . The application of a model generation prover to problem solving and to the specification of database integrity constraints is addressed in   . Implementations of provers are described in  . Further reports on related issues are . Timetabling issues have been investigated in various contexts, e.
Timetabling systems have been developed using constraint logic programming and extensively tested on benchmarks        . Constraint logic programming has been applied for implementing a 'rent advisor' according to German city office regulations fixing upper bounds to apartment rents.
Knowledge assimilation in deductive databases has been investigated in . The interactive analysis of high-dimensional association structures has been investigated in . An overview of current Bioinformatics databases is given in . An approach to Web-based co-operative work has been specified, implemented, and tested. Web services for teaching are addressed in .
Proposals for an enhanced modeling of electronic books are made in . In addition, members of the Unit have contributed to several additional conferences as program committee members or as reviewers. Two former members of the Unit, Tim Geisler and Dr. REWERSE will start in and last over 4 years, involves about researchers from about 30 institutions, and has an overall budget of 5,5 Million Euro of which 1,6 Millions are assigned to the Unit "Programming and Modelling Languages".
This report covers the period from September because the chair holder, Professor Martin Hofmann took up his position only then. Publications of those current members who have been employed before September are included as are publications of Martin Hofmann in case they are of importance for the current activities of the unit.
The former chair Peter Clote is now full professor of biology at Boston College, the former assistant Thorsten Altenkirch is lecturer in computer science at the University of Nottingham, and the former assistant Rolf Backofen is full professor for bioinformatics at the University of Jena. The program committee of the int. The project members are developing the foundations for guaranteeing bounded resource consumption of mobile code. The goal of this effort is to enhance the security of large-scale distributed systems by preventing third-party code from exhausting available resources.
A proof-carrying-code infrastructure is used, where resource certificates are shipped together with mobile code. Key techniques used in this project are automated theorem proving currently using Isabelle , for validating the resource certificates, and high-level type-systems [ 52 , 10 , 11 ], which extend classical types for functional languages with information on resource consumption. In this project the complexity of proof systems for classical propositional logic is studied.
In particular we investigate the minimal lengths of proofs in refinements and extensions of the Resolution calculus. Lower bounds on the proof lengths in these systems imply runtime lower bounds for certain types of backtracking algorithms, e. Another goal is to study the complexity of monotone boolean circuits, which can be a useful tool for the main project objective above.
Publications: [ 50 , 39 , 19 , 20 ]. The goal of this project is to find characterisations of computational complexity classes that do not rely on a specific model of computation and explicit resource bounds, but on more conceptual means, e. Apart from insights into structure of complexity classes this has applications to resource certification of programs [ 10 ] and code optimisation, in particular of space usage [ 52 ].
Nested datatypes, as introduced by Bird Oxford and his coworkers, can be understood semantically as initial algebras of endofunctors on a functor category. In this framework, notions of substitution for very general data structures can be represented [ 15 ]. The project is mainly concerned with a programming language approach: For higher-order typed lambda calculi, schemes of iteration and primitive recursion for inductively defined families of datatypes are identified and the programs expressible in these formalisms proven terminating, also for infinite datatypes.
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Typical examples are representations of terms involving binding such as lambda abstraction and explicit substitution operators. References: [ 42 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. Verification of hardware or software systems is often done using logics that are interpreted over program behaviours, i.
Even though most of them are known since the '70s or even earlier, there are still interesting fragments or variants of the standard logics with decision problems whose exact complexity bounds are still unknown. The aim of this research is to determine these bounds. Reference: [ 8 ]. The goal of parallel functional programming is to speed-up computations in functional languages by executing them on several processors in parallel.
In contrast to conventional parallel languages, no detailed specification of the coordination between the parallel processes has to be given. It is only necessary to annotate those expressions in the program that might be evaluated in parallel, and a sophisticated runtime environment automatically manages the coordination and distribution of work and data.
We have developed a parallel extension of Haskell98, called GpH , and are studying program analyses and program development in this high-level parallel language [ 22 ], the efficient implementation of the runtime-environment on a range of parallel architectures [ 12 , 23 ] and extensions for mobile code [ 24 ]. This research is a chapter of the synthesis problem. In our case the specifications are given by formulas of a logical system of co inductive definitions which is an extension of second order logic with equality AF2 whereas the programming language is a strongly normalising system of co inductive types which is an extension of the second order polymorphic lambda calculus.
Using a realisability interpretation we can automatically transform the proof of the specification into a proof of the fact that the program realizes it and therefore additional program verification methods are not needed. The new contribution consists in extending the method to specifications that include inductive definitions like lists and trees and even co-inductive definitions like streams or infinite trees. The paper [ 26 ] reports early stages of this research. Today learning is rather a life-long process than a one-time task. In this regard media and PC competence is a key qualification.
Keeping that in mind this project is about relating prerequisites of learners to their learning process in distance learning postgraduate professional education. We centre our main focus on media and PC competences in a virtual learning environment with extremely heterogeneous participants. Future work will deal with setting up a virtual learning environment with specific functions. A didactical, pedagogical and social concept will be made to support learners in a cooperative learning process.
Main goal of this project is to observe the influence of deficits in handling new media and computers on learning progress and to map out a strategy to countervail this behaviour. Reference: [ 7 ]. Most logics used for verification purposes turn out to be embeddable into the Modal mu-Calculus, a modal fixpoint logic that is often said to be very expressive. All properties defined by formulas of the Modal mu-Calculus are regular in the language theoretic sense. Thus, it is not even possible to express that something behaves like a bounded stack. This research aims at logics beyond the Modal mu-Calculus and suitable model checking algorithms for them.
Reference: [ 25 ]. Typed lambda calculi are the notation systems of choice for proofs in intuitionistic natural deduction. Since classical logic can be embedded into intuitionistic logic, also the former can be studied by the operational techniques available for lambda calculi. The operational reading of classical logic is of deep interest in programming language theory as an idealised functional programming language with control. This project aims at novel termination proofs for programs in these language fragments such as Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus and tries to incorporate complex datatypes.
An alternative technique to CPS translations has been discovered. References: [ 43 , 5 ]. In the project Media of the Future we investigate the use of new types of media and devices for presentation and interaction with information. In the course of the project we investigate commercially available products as well as technologies available in the research community and assess their applicability for specific application domains.
The focus is on input and output devices for virtual and augmented reality, technologies for mobile multimedia applications, and physical user interface. Beyond that we investigate technologies and methods that can be used for implicit user interfaces; of particular interest are sensors for capture and ambient media for peripheral information provision. The evaluation of technologies lead to a laboratory setup where specific technologies can be tested and assessed in detail with regard to specific application domains and user's needs.
Examples of technologies that are available in the lab are an interactive whiteboard Smart-Board , a 3D head-mounted display unit, data gloves for input, and prototypes of physical user interfaces Smart-Its. This is complemented by software and development tools for these systems. Multimedia applications are widely used for presentations, learning systems, and teaching tools. Currently development support and authoring tools are tailored to very specific application domains. The development of complex interactive multimedia applications is inadequate.
Model driven development, reusable components, and interface abstractions - standard practice in software engineering - are poorly supported. In this project it is investigated how methods and tools successfully used in software engineering can be applied to improve the development process of complex multimedia applications.
We are interested how such applications are developed, especially the cooperation of designer and software engineers is investigated. Existing development system for conventional software and authoring tools for multimedia applications have been studied and compared. These results are the basis for the development of new tools and methods for modelling and creating of multimedia applications. In more and more domains the production of audiovisual media is done entirely based on digital technology. Images, Sounds, and Video are captured, recorded, communicated, and stored in digital form.
Additional processing steps are also carried out digitally. The approach changes work processes and allows new forms of media production. In the project digital media production a concept for a research laboratory was created and currently the installation is on its way. The lab allows us to do investigate all steps that are involved in the process of digital media production. We investigate processes where video, animation, and 3D graphics merge. A further topic is digital audio production and distribution channels.
We are especially interested in new models and data formats for digital radio and in particular Internet radio. Based on these technologies we investigate new approach and technologies for digital media production. The entire project is third party funded by the federal ministry of education and research BMBF. The aims of the project are the development of description language for business processes and supporting tools and infrastructure.
The description language will be based on UML Unified Modeling Language and is designed to be appropriate for modelling complex business process on an abstract level. The language will be the basis for analysing business processes with regard to economic aspects. In the course of the project a prototypical reference implementation of an application that processes the description language will be designed and implemented. The main function of this application is to transform descriptions of business processes into executable programs. These generated programs will be web applications using HTML as mechanism for creating the user interface.
Heun started in April The activities concentrate on the establishment of the Bioinformatics Initiative Munich BIM and algorithmic aspects of bioinformatics. In computer science the unit focuses on areas relevant for bioinformatics applications:. The problems involved are hard from an algorithmic viewpoint NP complete and difficult with respect to modeling aspects protein folding. The project PROSEQO develops and implements heuristic combinatorial optimisation methods for protein structure prediction, determines good and efficiently computable bounds for structure prediction, exploits appropriate biological constraints, defines a formal language for the specification of such constraints e.
The project constructs feature based views of the protein sequence structure space, works on multi-criteria clustering of sequences and structures at the same time and develops methods for classification and alignment of proteins based on various criteria and scoring functions. Typical visual appearance of pathologic changes in lung parenchyma and airways of COPD patients are presented, furthermore methods for quantitative assessment of these changes and the crucial role of imaging for surgical and bronchoscopic treatment in COPD are discussed.
Radiological diagnosis in traumatology; Radiologische Diagnostik in der Traumatologie. This loose-leaf publication covers all radiological problems that may possibly occur in accident surgery. The focus is on conventional radiological diagnosis. The physical and technical fundamentals of diagnostic examination methods are discussed, followed by practical hints on radiation protection, technical equipment and quality assurance, as well as accurate information on the procedure of taking and interpreting standard X-ray pictures.
The indications for standard X-raying, tomography, CT and MRT are presented in consideration of the radiation exposure incurred by the patient. The reader is also informed on the dynamics and varying morphology of bone fracture healing, potential disturbances of callus formation and reconstruction, as well as on possible complications. The main section of the book discusses injuries of the skull, spinal cord, pectoral girdle, upper arm, elbow and lower arm, wrist and hands, pelvis, hip joint, knee and upper and lower leg, ankle joint and foot, thorax and abdomen.
Pulmonary hypertension. Radiological diagnostics in the clinical context; Pulmonale Hypertonie. Radiologische Diagnostik im klinischen Kontext. Pulmonary hypertension PH has a broad differential and the radiological task is to define and characterize the pathophysiological background. The first part of the review is focused on the clinical categorization and specific features of the various groups of PH. Overall, PH is a rare disease and the clinical symptoms are non specific. Therefore, the disease is usually detected delayed.
Each radiological technique, especially chest X-ray and CT, do show specific findings suggestive of PH, which will be discussed. Verification of the severity of PH is still a domain of invasive right heart catheterization. However, there are promising approaches using MRI to determine the pulmonary arterial pressure non-invasively. Current methods in the radiological diagnosis of oesophageal tumours. Aktuelle radiologische Diagnostik von Oesophagustumoren. Georgi, M.
Heidelberg Univ. The presence of dysphagia can easily be confirmed or disproven on the basis of conventional X-ray pictures without thereby compromising the patients' well-being. Such X-ray procedures should preferably precede endoscopy, as any pathological findings thus revealed may provide clues to the use of the latter method. Double contrast procedures may yield very useful additional information in hypotension, while CT and MRT have their merits in preoperative tumour staging. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache; Radiologische Diagnostik und Differenzialdiagnostik bei Kopfschmerzen im Erwachsenenalter.
Langner, S. Headache is very common and affects almost everyone at some point. It is one of the most common disorders that leads patients to see their physician. All different forms have the nociception via trigeminal nerve fibers in common. Beside the clinical course headaches are classified as either primary or secondary, with the latter having an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Imaging has a low diagnostic yield in primary headache but play an important role in the differential diagnosis of secondary forms.
An overview of different forms of secondary headache is given, outlining diagnostic procedures and the morphologic imaging features of each syndrome. Vogl, T. To present current data on diagnosis, indication and different therapy options in patients with cholangiocarcinoma CC based on an analysis of the current literature and clinical experience. The diagnostic routine includes laboratory investigations with parameters of cholestasis and also serum tumor markers CA19 - 9 and CEA. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiography ERCP can then be planned, especially if biliary drainage or cytological or histological specimen sampling is intended.
A curative approach can be achieved by surgical resection, rarely by liver transplantation. However, many patients are not eligible for surgery. In addition to systemic chemotherapy, locoregional therapies such as transarterial chemoembolization TACE , hepatic arterial infusion HAI - also known as chemoperfusion -, drug eluting beads-therapy DEB as well as thermoablative procedures, such as laser-induced thermotherapy LITT , microwave ablation MWA and radiofrequency ablation RFA can be provided with a palliative intention. Pauls, S. Abteilung Diagnostische Radiologie.
Patients with Klatskin's tumour present clinically unspecific symptoms such as painless jaundice and cholangitic discomfort. The only curative treatment is R0 resection of the tumour. To allow stage-specific therapy, accurate tumour staging is indispensable, the first step of which is abdominal sonography. Biopsy using ERC is required before starting any specific treatment. If therapeutically relevant peritoneal carcinosis is clinically suspected although not radiologically confirmed, PET should also be performed.
For optimal treatment, close cooperation between clinicians and radiologists is necessary. Eine R0-Resektion ist der einzige kurative Therapieansatz. Um eine stadiengerechte Therapie zu ermoeglichen, muss ein moeglichst exaktes Tumorstaging erfolgen. Primaer kommt die abdominelle Sonographie zum Einsatz. Wird klinisch trotz negativem Nachweis einer Peritonealkarzinose eine solche suspiziert, sollte bei Therapierelevanz z.
Um den Patienten eine optimale Therapie zukommen zu lassen, ist eine enge klinische Zusammenarbeit zwischen Radiologen, Internisten und Chirurgen notwendig. Radiology of the male breast. Radiologische Diagnostik der maennlichen Brustdruese. Mammographie, Sonographie, pathohistologische Korrelation.
Diagnoses included gynaecomastia in 53 cases, pseudogynaecomastia in 9 cases, 3 carcinomas, 2 inflammatory lesions and 1 lipoma. Mammography and sonography can differentiate reliably true gynaecomastia from pseudogynaecomastia. Gynaecomastia and especially inflammatory lesions may not always be readily differentiated from carcinoma.
Sonography can be helpful by demonstrating hyperreflexive glandular tissue, whereas carcinomas are usually hypoechoic. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung.
Masterstudiengang: International Business Administration
Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen. Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie. Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse.
On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. Posttraumatic radiological diagnostics of the cervical spine; Posttraumatische radiologische Diagnostik der Halswirbelsaeule.
Mutze, Sven [Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin Germany. Radiologie; Greifswald Univ. The objective of this article is to determine, for each available method, the indications for imaging as well as the associated possibilities and limitations. It furthermore examines the desirability of close co-operation with clinical colleges to avoid unnecessary tests while identifying necessary procedures quickly and effectively.
Individual cases are studied systematically and with numerous examples, and additional injuries, for example dissections of cerebral arteries and dural injuries, are highlighted. Excercises in diagnostic radiology. Uebungen in radiologischer Diagnostik. Diagnostic radiology in emergency patients as a supplement to anamnesis and examination has gained increasing importance in the last few years. Usually, the physician in charge has only few signs to go by when a patient is sent to radiology.
The most frequent signs are pectoral pain, headache, dyspenea, etc. The cases in this book have been selected accordingly. Although the names have been invented the case histories presented have not been greatly changed. The original 'negatives' of the anamnesis are not presented in most cases as they would have taken up too much space.
No important information has been omitted. A typical and unusual cases are characterized as such. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse; Bildgebende Diagnostik der Kindesmisshandlung. Stoever, B. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in 'battered child syndrome' and brain injuries in 'shaken baby syndrome'. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described.
The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system CNS immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings.
Trotz scheinbar leerer Anamnese gelingt es, typische Verletzungsmuster als Misshandlungsfolge zu erkennen, sowohl im Bereich des Skeletts, der Weichteile, des Abdomens 'battered child syndrome', heute: 'non accidental injury', NAI als auch im ZNS 'shaken baby syndrome'. Den klinischen Symptomen entsprechend, wird im Verdachtsfall ein adaequates diagnostisches Verfahren eingesetzt, das erwartete charakteristische Befunde nachweist, den Mechanismus der Verletzung aufzeigt und das Alter der Laesionen annaehernd festlegt. Radiologische Skelettbefunde werden hinsichtlich ihrer Spezifitaet fuer eine Misshandlung bewertet.
Alle Resultate der Bildgebung sind zusammen mit Anamnese und klinischen Befunden zu deuten. Lumbar disc arthroplasty: indications, biomechanics, types, and radiological criteria; Lumbale Bandscheibenendoprothesen: Indikationen, Biomechanik, Typen und radiologische Kriterien. Rueckenschmerzen und eine signifikante Verbesserung in den disability scores. Die radiologische Diagnostik ist wichtiger Bestandteil der praeoperativen Abklaerung.
Ausschluss von Spondylarthrosen, eines Morbus Baastrup und anderer moeglicher Schmerzursachen angefertigt werden, ausserdem ein MRT zum Nachweis des Wasserverlustes der Bandscheibe, Ausschluss groesserer Prolabierungen oder zur Darstellung von Aktivierungszeichen. Die postoperative radiologische Diagnostik sollte Nativaufnahmen in 2 Ebenen und im spaeteren Verlauf Funktionsaufnahmen beinhalten.
Eine ideal eingesetzte LBEP sollte im a. Bild mittig zentriert und in der Seitaufnahme dorsal nahe der Wirbelkoerperhinterkante abschliessen. Bei Fehllage drohen segmentale Hyperlordose und ungleiche Belastung mit der Gefahr der Einsinterung und der Migration. Baur-Melnyk, A. Aktuelle Diagnostik der kindlichen Harninkontinenz. Auch eine Komedikation mit Ritalin wegen Aufmerksamkeits-Defizitsyndrom findet sich zunehmend. Radiological imaging of osteoarthritis of the knee; Radiologische Bildgebung der Kniegelenkarthrose.
Wick, M. Die demographische Altersentwicklung der westlichen Industrielaender prognostiziert einen deutlichen Anstieg der Arthroseinzidenz fuer die naechsten Jahrzehnte. Nach wie vor stellt die konventionelle projektionsradiographische Roentgenbildanalyse die einfachste und guenstigste radiologische Modalitaet bei der Beurteilung und Verlaufskontrolle der Kniegelenkarthrose dar.
Das Roentgenbild birgt zunehmend in zahlreichen klinischen und wissenschaftlichen Situationen signifikante Limitierungen, welche durch moderne bildgebende Methoden wie der Magnetresonanztomographie MRT und Sonographie ueberwunden werden koennen. Intravitale Knorpelbeurteilungen anhand spezieller bildgebender MRT-Methoden werden zunehmend in der Diagnostik und Verlaufskontrolle der Arthrose eingesetzt und koennten bei breiter klinischer Anwendung zukuenftig zu einem Paradigmenwechsel bei der Behandlung arthrotischer Knorpelschaeden fuehren.
In diesem Uebersichtsartikel sollen die wichtigsten radiologischen diagnostischen Merkmale der Kniegelenkarthrose und deren radiologisch Beurteilung dargestellt werden. Die systematische radiologische Beurteilung der Kniegelenkarthrose umfasst die Bestimmung der Gelenkkapselstrukturen, Synovia, Knorpeldicke, des Knorpelvolumens, eventueller Knorpeldefekte, des makromodularen Netzwerks des hyalinen Gelenkknorpels, eines Knochenmarkoedems, der Menisken und der artikulaeren Gelenkbaender.
Moderne bildgebende Methoden wie die MRT und Sonographie sind in der Lage, die Schwaechen der Projektionsradiographie zu eliminieren und das Kniegelenk mit seinen knoechernen, knorpeligen, ligamentoesen und weichteildichten Strukturen detailliert abzubilden. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors; Diagnostik bei Tumoren im Gastrointestinaltrakt. Linke, R. Muenchen Germany. Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin.
In such cases a PET scan may be helpful. PET seems to be more accurate in this respect, too. Auch die Differenzierung eines Lokalrezidivs von postoperativer Narbenbildung, z. Lebertumoren sollten primaer sonographisch und bei fraglicher Dignitaet anschliessend mittels MRT untersucht werden. In der Differentialdiagnostik von unklaren Leberherden ist die nuklearmedizinische Rezeptorszintigraphie wegweisend.
Ergeben die vorgeschalteten Untersuchungen den Verdacht auf einen malignen Prozess, sollte zusaetzlich eine CT-Arterioportographie durchgefuehrt werden, da dieses. Diagnostics and therapy of spinal disc herniation; Diagnostik und Therapie des Bandscheibenvorfalls. Zimmer, A. Degenerative processes in a movement segment of the vertebral column, which can potentially give rise to herniation of elements of the nucleus pulposus, are complex and of variable clinical and radiological dimensions; however the mere assumption that degenerative changes precede disc herniation remains a matter of debate.
By definition, spinal disc herniation SDH refers to components of the gelatinous nucleus pulposus protruding beyond the dorsal level of the vertebral body margin through tears in the annulus fibrosus. Clinical presentation may include pain, paresis and sensory disturbances.
In the majority of patients a conservative approach with physical therapy exercises and adequate analgesic and antiphlogistic medical treatment results in a substantial improvement of symptoms. Selbst die Annahme, dass Bandscheibenvorfaellen eine Degeneration vorangeht, ist keineswegs unumstritten.
Definitionsgemaess spricht man von einem Bandscheibenvorfall BSV , wenn das Gewebe des gelatinoesen Nucleus pulposus durch eine Dehiszenz im Anulus fibrosus ueber das Niveau der normalen dorsalen Begrenzung des Bandscheibenfachs hinaus prolabiert. Klinisch kann dies mit Schmerzen, Paresen und Sensibilitaetsstoerungen einhergehen.
In der Mehrzahl der Faelle fuehrt ein konservatives Vorgehen zu einer deutlichen Besserung der Symptomatik im Verlauf. Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse; Kinderradiologische Diagnostik bei Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung. Erfurt, C.
Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system CNS in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare.
Diese soll insbesondere im Bereich des ZNS Verletzungsfolgen erfassen, um therapeutische Massnahmen einleiten zu koennen. Bei typischen, auf eine Misshandlung hinweisenden radiologischen Befunden ist eine praezise beweissichere Befunddokumentation erforderlich, um eine weitere Kindeswohlgefaehrdung zu vermeiden. Radiologic diagnostics of dementia; Radiologische Demenzdiagnostik.
Essig, M. Dementia is one of the most common diseases in the elderly population and is getting more and more important with the ageing of the population. A radiologic structural examination with CT or MRI is meanwhile a standard procedure in the diagnostic work up of patients with dementia syndrome. Radiology enables an early diagnosis and a differential diagnosis between different causes of dementia. Because structural changes occur only late in the disease process, a more detailed structural analysis using volumetric techniques or the use of functional imaging techniques is mandatory.
These days, structural imaging uses MRI which enables to detect early atrophic changes at the medial temporal lobe with focus on the amygdala hippocampal complex. These changes are also present in the normal ageing process. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, however, they are more rapid and more pronounced. The article gives an overview of the current status of structural imaging and an outlook into the potential of functional imaging methods.
Detailed results of structural and functional imaging are presented in other articles of this issue. Sie dient der Frueherkennung und der Differenzialdiagnostik der verschiedenen Ursachen einer Demenz. Dies gilt insbesondere in Hinblick auf zu erwartende und bereits vorhandene Therapiemoeglichkeiten. Da jedoch strukturelle Veraenderungen erst relativ spaet im Fortschreiten der Erkrankung visualisiert werden koennen, sind detaillierte strukturelle.
Diagnostic radiology of the osteo-articular system. Bohndorf, Klaus [Medizinische Univ. Wien Austria. Exzellenzzentrum Hochfeld-Magnetresonanz; Woertler, Klaus ed.
Faculty 16 "Mathematics, Informatics and Statistics": Research Report 1998 -- 2003
Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar Germany. The book on diagnostic radiology of the osteo-articular system includes the following chapters: 1 Acute trauma and chronic overstress: essentials; 2 Acute trauma and chronic overstress according regions ; 3 Infections of bones, bone joints and soft tissue; 4 Tumors and tumor-like lesions of bones, bone joints and soft tissue; 5 Bone marrow; 6 Skeleton necrosis; 7 Osteochondrosis; 8 Metabolic, hormone related and toxically induced osteopathy; 9 Constitutional skeleton and bone joint development disturbances; 1 Rheumatic diseases; 11 Different skeletal, bone joint and soft tissue diseases; 12 Interventional actions at the skeleton, soft tissue and bone joints; 13 Radiological imaging of skeleton and bone joints.
Radiologic diagnostic and therapeutic options in patients with pulsatile tinnitus; Radiologische Diagnostik des Ohrgeraeuschs und therapeutische Optionen. A pulse synchronous tinnitus is characterized by a rhythmic sound that is in sync with the patient heartbeat or respiration and can be perceived by the patient as a bruit.
Different from the more common classic and continuous ear sound, with pulse synchronous tinnitus one may often discover a pathological neovascular condition that can be diagnosed with medical imaging. This review covers the different conditions leading to pulse synchronous tinnitus and provides indications requiring preventive and active treatment to avoid potential but serious sequela for the patient. Radiological imaging of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The esophagus; Radiologische Bildgebung des oberen Gastrointestinaltrakts. Hansmann, J. In the diagnosis of diseases of the esophagus, conventional x-ray evaluation still plays a more important role than endoscopy in the visualization of stenoses.
CT plays a major role in the staging of malignancies of the esophagus, while MRI plays does not play a major part in the diagnostic evaluation of the upper GI-tract but is equal to CT for the staging and evaluation of the extent of local infiltration. The main indication for the radiological examination of the esophagus by barium studies is dysphagia. The use of barium allows a functional examination of esophageal motility.
Swallow motility disorders can be diagnosed by videofluorography using high frame rate imaging. Zenker's diverticulum and other pulsion diverticula should also be investigated by functional esophageal imaging. Candida esophagitis can be identified by its characteristic ulcerations using barium swallow. The extension of gastroesophageal hernias are more accurately evaluated with barium studies than with endoscopy. The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease should be made by barium studies, but discrete inflammation as well as epithelial dysplasia are best investigated by classic endoscopy and modern endoscopic techniques.
In cases of esophageal carcinoma, radiology adds to the findings of endoscopy and endosonography. Mit konventionellem Roentgen kann die Funktion des Oesophagus untersucht werden, zudem sind Stenosen besser darstellbar als in der Endoskopie. Die MRT wird im oberen Gastrointestinaltrakt kaum mehr diagnostisch verwendet, ist aber im Umfeldstaging und fuer die lokale Infiltrationsausdehnung dem CT gleichwertig. Hauptindikation zur radiologischen Oesophagusdiagnostik ist die Dysphagie. Der Oesophagusbreischluck dient der morphologischen Diagnostik , die Motilitaet kann in Bauchlage mit Barium untersucht werden.
Schluckstoerungen werden mit der Roentgenkinematographie abgeklaert. Das Zenker. Fractures of the cervical spine. Diagnostic procedures in patients with severe cranio-cervical trauma; HWS-Frakturen. Diagnostik bei polytraumatisierten Patienten. Link, T. Muenster Germany ; Schuierer, G. Muenster Germany ; Hufendiek, A. Muenster Germany ; Peters, P. Muenster Germany. The purpose of our study was to analyze diagnostic procedures of the cervical spine in severely traumatized patients.
Findings in plain radiographs and computer radiography of patients were evaluated. The image quality of the plain radiographs was examined. Casualty reports were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty of the fractures diagnosed in CT were not diagnosed in plain radiography and 7 fractures were uncertain findings; 5 fractures were not detected at the casualty site. A new screening procedure in patients with severe head injury is introduced.
Retrospektiv wurden Roentgenaufnahmen und Computertomogramme der HWS von polytraumatisierten Patienten analysiert. Konventionelle HWS-Aufnahmen wurden in bezug auf ihre Qualitaet untersucht und der Befund der konventionellen Aufnahmen mit dem der Computertomographie verglichen. Die Befunde vom Unfalltag wurden den retrospektiv validierten Befunden gegenuebergestellt. Ein neues Untersuchungsprotokoll mit routinemaessiger computertomographischer Untersuchung von HWK 1 und 2 bei Schaedel-Hirn-Traumata wird vorgestellt.
Diagnostic imaging of compression neuropathy; Bildgebende Diagnostik von Nervenkompressionssyndromen. Weishaupt, D. Compression-induced neuropathy of peripheral nerves can cause severe pain of the foot and ankle. Early diagnosis is important to institute prompt treatment and to minimize potential injury. Although clinical examination combined with electrophysiological studies remain the cornerstone of the diagnostic work-up, in certain cases, imaging may provide key information with regard to the exact anatomic location of the lesion or aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis.
MR imaging and ultrasound provide direct visualization of the nerve and surrounding abnormalities. Bony abnormalities contributing to nerve compression are best assessed by radiographs and CT. Knowledge of the anatomy, the etiology, typical clinical findings, and imaging features of peripheral neuropathies affecting the peripheral nerves of the foot and ankle will allow for a more confident diagnosis.
Eine fruehzeitige Diagnose ist entscheidend, um den Patienten der richtigen Therapie zuzufuehren und potenzielle Schaedigungen zu vermeiden oder zu verringern. Obschon die klinische Untersuchung und die elektrophysiologische Abklaerungen die wichtigsten Elemente der Diagnostik peripherer Nervenkompressionssyndrome sind, kann die Bildgebung entscheidend sein, wenn es darum geht, die Hoehe des Nervenschadens festzulegen oder die Differenzialdiagnose einzugrenzen.
In gewissen Faellen kann durch Bildgebung sogar die Ursache der Nervenkompression gefunden werden. In anderen Faellen ist die Bildgebung wichtig bei der Therapieplanung, insbesondere dann, wenn die Laesion chirurgisch angegangen wird. Magnetresonanztomographie MRT und Sonographie ermoeglichen eine. Bone and bone marrow - nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of disorders of the hematopoetic system; Skelett und Knochenmark - nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik bei onkologischen und haematologischen Systemerkrankungen.
Significant progress has been achieved during the last years regarding therapy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic system by introduction of new therapeutic modalities like highdose chemotherapy, bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, interferon-therapy and others. Diagnosis is still based on biopsy and histopathology of bone marrow. Imaging methods, however, provided by radiology and nuclear medicine, are now increasingly employed to give an additional macroscopic view over morphological and functional changes of the entire bone marrow.
Bone marrow scintigraphy either using radiocolloids or immunoscintigraphy against granulocyte-antigenes may be performed as an alternative or an addition to nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Bone scintigraphy has been successful in the detection of additional bony lesions for more than two decades. Positron emission tomography using fluorine-deoxyglucose has recently been employed as a new and promising tool also for assessment of bone marrow infiltration in malignant lymphomas. Grundlage der Diagnostik ist nach wie vor die histologische Beurteilung des Knochenmarks nach Biopsie.
Ergaenzend spielen bildgebende radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Verfahren zur makroskopischen Beurteilung morphologischer und funktioneller Veraenderungen des gesamten Knochenmarkraumes eine zunehmende Rolle. Die Knochenmarkszintigraphie mit Radiokolloiden bzw.
Die Skelettszintigraphie als bewaehrte Methode vermag zusaetzlich ossaere. Diagnostics of vascular diseases as a cause for acute abdomen; Diagnostik vaskulaerer Erkrankungen als Ursache fuer das akute Abdomen. Juchems, M. Vascular pathologies are rare causes of an acute abdomen. If the cause is a vascular disease a rapid diagnosis is desired as vascular pathologies are associated with high mortality. A differentiation must be made between arterial and venous diseases.
An occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is the most common reason for acute mesenteric ischemia but intra-abdominal arterial bleeding is also of great importance. Venous pathologies include thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and the vena cava.
Multi-detector computed tomography MDCT is predestined for the diagnostics of vascular diseases of the abdomen. Using multiphasic contrast protocols enables reliable imaging of the arterial and venous vessel tree and detection of disorders with high sensitivity and specificity.
Although conventional angiography has been almost completely replaced by MDCT as a diagnostic tool, it is still of high importance for minimally invasive interventions, for example in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Liegt eine vaskulaere Erkrankung vor, ist jedoch aufgrund der hohen Mortalitaet eine zuegige Diagnostik von grosser Wichtigkeit.
Bei den Erkrankungen der abdominellen Gefaesse sind arterielle von venoesen Ursachen zu unterscheiden. Ein Verschluss der A. Venoese Pathologien betreffen thrombotische Verschluesse der Pfortader, der V. Mit mehrphasigen Untersuchungsprotokollen gelingt es, den arteriellen und venoesen Gefaessbaum zuverlaessig darzustellen und Erkrankungen mit hoher Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet zu.
Diagnostic radiology of thoracic diseases. Textbook and atlas. Lehrbuch und Atlas. The book on diagnostic radiology of thoracic diseases covers the following topics: diagnostic techniques and normal diagnostic findings using x-ray radiography, CT, scintigraphy, angiography, bronchography, ultrasonography and NMR imaging; malformations; infections; emphysema, chronic lung diseases and asthma; inhalation damage and pneumoconiosis; neoplasm; vascular diseases; thorax injuries, pleura diseases, heart diseases, mediastinum diseases; midriff diseases; thoracic wall diseases; pathological pattern in CT; radiological indications and differential diagnostics; thoracic interventions.
Modern radiological postoperative diagnostics of the hip joint in children and adults; Moderne radiologische postoperative Diagnostik des Hueftgelenks im Kindes- und Erwachsenenalter. Weber, M. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Egermann, M. Center for Orthopedics. The assessment of bone healing and loosening of endoprosthesis material was long the primary indication for postoperative projection radiography and CT imaging of the hip joint following trauma and endoprosthesis implantation.
With the increasing number of joint-preserving surgery, e. In this review article, diagnostic imaging of the hip joint is presented following common trauma surgery and orthopedic surgery interventions. The imaging modalities of projection radiography, CT and MRI including direct MR-arthrography are discussed with regard to their diagnostic capability in the postoperative assessment of the hip joint. Among others topics, imaging is discussed following hip arthroplasty, following surgical hip luxation and arthroscopic interventions for the treatment of FAI, as well as following core decompression for avascular necrosis of the femoral head.
Moreover, orthopedic interventions of the hip joint in children and adolescents are presented and the dedicated reporting of postoperative imaging is outlined. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms; Radiologische Diagnostik Abdomen und Thorax. Bildinterpretation unter Beruecksichtigung anatomischer Landmarken und klinischer Symptome.
Krombach, Gabriele A. Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie. The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: 1 imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. II Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. III Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.
Evidence-based radiology: a new approach to evaluate the clinical practice of radiology; Evidenzbasierte Radiologie: Ein neuer Ansatz zur Bewertung von klinisch angewandter radiologischer Diagnostik und Therapie. Puig, S. Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Univ. Over the last several years, the concept and methodology of evidence-based medicine EBM have received significant attention in the scientific community.
However, compared to therapeutic medical disciplines, EBM-based radiological publications are still underrepresented. This article summarizes the principles of EBM and discusses the possibilities of their application in radiology. The presented topics include the critical appraisal of studies on the basis on EBM principles, the explanation of EBM-relevant statistical outcome parameters e.
Evidence-based evaluation of radiological procedures does not only address aspects of cost-effectiveness, but is also particularly helpful in identifying patient-specific usefulness. Therefore it should become an integral part of radiologist training. S3 Guideline. Diagnosis and treatment of colorectal carcinoma. Relevance for radiologic imaging and interventions; Aktualisierte S3-Leitlinie zur Diagnostik und Therapie des kolorektalen Karzinoms. Bedeutung fuer die radiologische Diagnostik und Intervention.
Medizinische Universitaetsklinik; Pereira, P. Chirurgische Klinik. With its evidence-based treatment recommendations, the guideline contains numerous updates and detailed definitions regarding the diagnosis and treatment of colon and rectal cancer. In particular, consensus-based recommendations regarding early detection, preoperative diagnostic method selection, and the use of interventional radiological treatment methods are detailed.
The guideline also includes quality indicators so that standardized quality assurance methods can be used to optimize patient-related processes. The present article discusses the significance of the current recommendations for radiological diagnosis and treatment and is intended to enhance the quality of patient information and care by increasing distribution.