It has long been noted that patients with borderline personality disorder report that they engage in self-cutting not as a suicidal act but, rather, as a means to relieve psychic pain. Many patients report that they do not feel physical pain at the moment when they cut themselves; instead, cutting engenders feelings of relief or well-being.
One view of cutting in borderline personality disorder is that it represents a method of endogenous opioid generation. In this view, patients learn to cut themselves, thereby releasing opioids, which reward their behavior. This, coupled with evidence that patients with borderline personality disorder who do not cut themselves are less symptomatic than those who do, led to efforts to treat borderline personality disorder with opiate antagonists by eliminating the positive feedback from cutting.
While we know of no large-scale randomized, controlled trial, pilot studies on the efficacy of opiate antagonists showed mixed results reviewed in reference 4 and overall showed that while opiate antagonists may slightly decrease cutting behavior, they do not improve the intrapsychic distress that leads to the cutting 6. This lack of diminished distress is consistent with the model of opioid deficiency. Thus, a promising way of construing cutting behavior in borderline personality disorder is to consider that these patients may have a preexisting deficit in endogenous opioids.
According to this view, patients are self-medicating by cutting themselves, attempting to attenuate severe intrapsychic distress that healthy individuals—without such a deficit—would not be experiencing. A deficit in opioids is also consistent with the high rate of opiate abuse in borderline personality disorder, as patients may be compensating for a deficit in endogenous opioids. Not only is there is a high rate of opiate abuse in borderline personality disorder, but there is also a high rate of borderline personality disorder among patients seeking substance abuse treatment; for instance, Clinically, it has been noted that individuals with borderline personality disorder who are taking opiates report feeling euthymic rather than euphoric, while withdrawal is associated with sustained dysphoria.
An opioid-deficit theory of borderline personality disorder might explain far more than the self-injurious behavior of these patients. For example, their extraordinary difficulties in social behavior may also be linked to a preexisting deficit in endogenous opioids. The endogenous opioid system not only regulates pain but also has an important role in social behavior. Reductions in its function have been associated with attachment behavior deficits and anxiety-like responses in animal models. In many species, the soothing and comforting that infants receive from maternal grooming and touching is mediated through the opioid system 8.
In human beings, opioids are involved in normal and pathological emotion regulation 9 in addition to their more traditional role in modulating the sensory and affective dimensions of pain In short, there is reason to think that endogenous opioids facilitate normal social function in healthy individuals. If the proposed model is accurate, then a deficit in endogenous opioids might go some way toward explaining not only cutting behavior and substance abuse in borderline personality disorder but also the almost ubiquitous social dysfunction observed inthis condition.
Mood shifts and self-destructive behaviors in borderline personality disorder seem to arise specifically in response to interpersonal triggers Furthermore, the domains of intrapsychic pain and interpersonal dysfunction in borderline personality disorder are closely linked. Clinical Implications The findings of Prossin and colleagues have both broad and specific clinical implications.
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This view could provide a heuristic model to help patients and clinicians understand the social disruption in borderline personality disorder. The satisfaction that normally accompanies closeness to other people both in early attachment and throughout life may elude patients with borderline personality disorder. If these individuals do not have sufficient endogenous opioids, then the continual craving for relationships and heightened reaction to their loss is understandable. Such a model could provide a better understanding and improve management of disappointment in relationships for patients.
It might also destigmatize the disorder; the difficulty in forming a therapeutic alliance, for example, could be reconstrued as the result of an opioid deficit. References 1. J Clin Psychiatry ; — 2. Compr Psychiatry ; — 3. Am J Psychiatry ; — 4. Stanley B, Siever LJ: The interpersonal dimension of borderline personality disorder: toward a neuropeptide model.
Am J Psychiatry ; —39 5. J Affect Disord ; — 6. World J Biol Psychiatry ; 11 2, part 2 — 7. Int J Psychiatry Med ; — 8. Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; — 9. Arch Gen Psychiatry ; — Science ; — Gunderson JG: Disturbed relationships as a phenotype for borderline personality disorder commentary. Am J Psychiatry ; — The agency told Medscape Medical News the risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, known as REMS, are scheduled to be approved in , with roll out and implementation to follow. Most committee members agreed that safety measures for opioids are urgently needed but voiced concern that the current approach does not go far enough to protect the public.
According to some reports, there are more deaths from opioid overdoses than from heroin and cocaine overdoses combined. Herbert Neuman, MD, vice president of medical affairs and chief medical officer at Covidien Pharmaceuticals, says he is eagerly awaiting the new plan. Neuman said during an interview, adding that he looks forward to the clarity a final decision will afford. The plan will alter the prescribing landscape for opioid therapies and is expected to have important implications for an estimated 4 million patients.
Advisory committee members recommended mandatory training for prescribers. They called on Congress to initiate new legislation to link physician education to the existing Drug Enforcement Administration registration system. More than 1 million clinicians are currently registered to prescribe opioids. The committee, led by Jeffrey Kirsch, MD, from the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, argued that the overwhelming public health problem of opioid misuse is in part beyond the regulatory control of the FDA and will require a multidisciplinary approach.
Fine points out that in the absence of a well-designed uniform curriculum focused on opioid therapies in medical schools, continuing education is necessary. The advisory committee called on regulators to add immediate-release drugs to the current plan, which presently includes only extended-release and long-acting formulations.
If only schedule II compounds have more stringent requirements, then physicians may opt out by prescribing less-monitored alternatives. Fine says this is not surprising. Prior studies have yielded conflicting results regarding gender-specific differences in the quality and incidence of pain, as well as the risk factors that predict medication misuse. To further elucidate the relationship between sex and opioid misuse, Dr. Jamison and several colleagues recruited male and female patients with chronic noncancer pain who were treated at pain management centers in five states.
At study outset and completion, urine samples from of the patients were tested for both prescribed and nonprescribed substances. Multiple regression analyses identified significant correlations between specific questionnaire responses and actual opioid misuse, and controlled for possible intervening variables. Jamison and his team found women who misused opioids had significantly higher ratings on five particular SOAPP-R items, indicating they felt overwhelmed, had been engaging in arguments or experiencing hurt, were impatient with their physician, had been sexually abused, and were concerned about how they were judged by others.
In contrast, men who misused opioids had significantly higher scores on SOAPP-R items indicating a history of arrest, a bad temper, and having friends with alcohol or drug use problems. Although the findings indicate important gender-specific risk factors for opioid misuse, Dr. Jamison cautioned that because the study population was older, mostly disabled and had a long duration of pain, these results should not be extrapolated to younger, better-functioning patients with recent-onset pain.
Nevertheless, he said, the results should help clinicians discern those patients at highest risk for opioid misuse. Shurman told Pain Medicine News. Researchers say ayahuasca, found in the Peruvian rainforest, could be used for a variety of ailments. New research suggests ayahuasca, a jungle vine found in the Peruvian rainforest, can have a powerful effect on the human central nervous system when brewed with other plants.
Ayahuasca is one traditional plant-based medicine that has drawn the attention of investigators. In the South American jungles, it is used in religious ceremonies to induce visions and also as a remedy to cure ills. At the Onanyan Shobo spiritual retreat center in the rainforest near Iquitos, Peru, shaman Alfredo Kayruna Canayo shows off a section of the twisting, leafy vine.
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Ayahuasca is known as a master plant, a very powerful remedy that treats the whole person: body, mind, and soul. What is the bad energy? One of them could be the fears, then some wound or injury you have. Whether the plant is being used for religious or medicinal purposes, ayahuasca is taken only in a ceremonial setting under the direction of an experienced shaman.
To turn it into a drink, also called ayahuasca, pieces of the vine are pounded into a pulp and combined with several other plants, then brewed down for eight or more hours into a thick orange liquid. That combination, shaman Alfredo says, is critical. In Shipibo culture, they believe the chacruna is the wife of ayahuasca because they help and work together. An international research team is investigating the pharmaceutical potential of ayahuasca, known scientifically as Banisteriopsis caapi.
Principal investigator, Dr. His team has done a chemical analysis of the medicinal drink. Pieces of the vine are pounded into a pulp and combined with several other plants, then brewed down for eight or more hours into a thick orange liquid. Ayahuasca is generally a decoction of two plants. The active ingredients in the brew are DMT, a naturally occurring brain chemical similar to serotonin, and a natural antidepressant.
DMT is inactivated in the human gut, but when combined with the antidepressant, it can be absorbed by the body. The potion also has anti-parasitic properties, which can help prevent malaria. The U. Food and Drug Administration classifies the principal active ingredient in ayahuasca as a Schedule 1 controlled substance, which is not considered to have any legitimate medical use. As a result, the ayahuasca brew is illegal in the United States, and most of the pharmaceutical studies are being conducted in South America. Grob says the studies are important. Retreats like Onanynan Shobo in the Peruvian jungle, have become popular destinations for the medical tourism industry.
Because many Shamans claim ayahuasca cures a variety of cancers, tumors, and other diseases, the Peruvian jungle has become a popular destination for the medical tourism industry. Ich beschloss daraufhin, diese therapeutischen Verfahren im Rahmen eines Forschungsprojekts medizinische Anthropologie genauer zu untersuchen. Die Aussagen von Schamanen und Heilern erwiesen sich bald als ein schwieriges Hindernis. Sie werden zu dir kommen und zu dir sprechen; das ist der einzige Weg zu lernen.
Andererseits gibt es nur wenige Behandlungszentren, die zudem noch in der Hauptstadt konzentriert sind. In jeder Region sind Methoden entwickelt worden, die auf einer oder mehreren psychotropen Substanzen basieren Kaktus mit Meskalin, Lianen usw. Die Patienten kommen freiwillig. Das derzeitige Ziel der Vereinigung besteht darin, eine Struktur zu schaffen, die 15 Patienten dauerhaft aufnehmen kann.
Das aus unseren Erfahrungen entwickelte Behandlungsverfahren verbindet traditionelle Medizin mit modernen psychotherapeutischen Techniken. Das wesentliche Element der Initiationstechniken im oberen Amazonasgebiet ist Ayahuasca. Nachdem wir ihre Wirkungen in mehr als rituellen Sitzungen an uns seihst erforscht und gelernt haben, mit ihr umzugehen, haben wir diese Zubereitung zum zentralen Punkt unserer Therapie gemacht.
Ayahuasca bewegt sich weiter. Nachdem sie ihre Rolle gespielt hat, macht sie ihren Platz frei. Das Konzept der Substitution ist der Methode, der wir Folgen, also vollkommen fremd. Der Einsatz von Methadon z. Er ist ein Zudecken, eine — vielleicht elegante und in Krankenhausfarben gehaltene — Verkleidung, in Wirklichkeit aber eine barbarische Praxis. Drogensucht driickt eine tiefe Sehnsucht aus, den Sinn der Existenz wiederzufinden.
Es geht ums Geld. Euro und Aesca Pharma 59 Mio. Aesca kommt mit seinen Produkten Subutex und Suboxone zusammen auf 21 Prozent.
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Zum Teil mit Erfolg. Beide betrafen Suboxone von Aesca. According to an evidence review from Pain Treatment Topics, opioid antagonists like naloxone and naltrexone — which block opioid drugs from activating their receptors — may be surprisingly helpful for relieving difficult-to-treat pain conditions. For many types of pain, prescription opioids are among the most effective analgesics. Yet, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting potential benefits of opioid antagonists, particularly naloxone and naltrexone. This is somewhat unexpected because these drugs displace opioid molecules from their neuroreceptors, and block opioids from attaching to and activating those receptors.
Leavitt, MA, PhD, describes naloxone and naltrexone pharmacology and the theoretical foundations of opioid antagonists for pain management. The complete report with references can be freely accessed at the Pain-Topics. Naloxone and naltrexone have been extensively studied in the past, and are FDA-approved for the treatment of alcoholism or opioid addiction naltrexone or opioid overdose naloxone.
A long-acting form of naltrexone for intramuscular injection also is approved for addiction therapy. These antagonists also are being used or tested as ingredients in specially formulated opioid analgesics to deter their misuse or abuse. Along with this, tolerance to and physiologic dependency on opioid analgesics, as well as certain opioid side effects, may.
PressRelease be diminished. Explanatory mechanisms of action behind the benefits of opioid antagonists in pain management are still under investigation. With opioid-agonist therapy, the body becomes better attuned to the beneficial effects of both external opioids, such as morphine, and naturally occurring internal opioids, such as endorphins.
Clinical research to date on low- or ultralow dose applications of opioid antagonists for pain management in humans has been limited. Still, the available evidence described in this report suggests a number of possibilities that may be of interest to healthcare providers and their patients with pain, including: Brief detoxification using naloxone for difficult cases of opioid-unresponsive intractable pain, opioid tolerance, or suspected opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Ultralow-dose naloxone combined with various opioid agonists for managing postoperative pain. Ultralow-dose naltrexone oral or naloxone intrathecal as a component of intrathecal opioid analgesia for difficult cases of intractable pain.
Ultralow-dose oral naltrexone combined with opioid agonists to provide an opioid-sparing effect, offering equivalent pain relief at lower opioid doses. Oral ultra-low dose naloxone or naltrexone combined with oral opioid analgesics to help prevent or reverse opioid-induced constipation and to potentially reduce other opioid side effects.
Ultralow-dose naltrexone to help facilitate more comfortable opioid-agonist tapering. Therefore, it is not surprising that they have exhibited favorable safety profiles when applied at low- and ultralow-dose levels, with few notices of adverse events or side effects at these doses when used individually as monotherapy or in combination with opioid analgesics. Practitioners are advised to study the available evidence and use professional discretion in their prescribing decisions. Pain Treatment Topics and the associated Pain-Topics. The project is independently produced and currently supported by educational grants from Purdue Pharma L.
Louis, MO, leading manufacturers of opioid analgesic products. The sponsors had no participatory role in the initiation or development of this report on opioid antagonists in pain management. This is apparently considered a small matter to US leaders in the discussions about failed states, narco-states and the false claim that violence is spilling across the border. Just what is this work? No one seems to know, but on the ground it is death. We are told of a War on Drugs that has no observable effect on drug distribution, price or sales in the United States.
We are told repeatedly that it is a war between cartels or that it is a war by the Mexican government against cartels, yet no evidence is presented to back up these claims. The evidence we do have is that the killings are not investigated, that the military suffers almost no casualties and that thousands of Mexicans have filed affidavits claiming abuse, often lethal, by the Mexican army.
Here is the US policy in a nutshell: we pay Mexicans to kill Mexicans, and this slaughter has no effect on drug shipments or prices. This war gets personal. It never occurs to him to call the police, nor does it occur to you. A friend who is a Mexican reporter flees to the United States because the Mexican Army has come to his house and plans to kill him for writing a news story that displeases the generals.
He is promptly thrown into prison by the Department of Homeland Security because he is considered a menace to American society. The little boy watched his mother die, her head blown apart by the bullets. A cousin waits in a parking lot surrounded by chainlink and razor-wire on the US side of the bridge for the bodies to be delivered so that he can bring them home. The next day, the family takes to the parking lots of two fast-food outlets in their hometown of Las Cruces, New Mexico, for a carwash. Young girls in pink shorts and T-shirts wave hand-lettered signs. They will wash your car and accept donations to help bury their parents and sister, to buy clothes for two small orphans.
She says they are in shock, the full impact of what happened has yet to sink in. So for now, they will raise the money they need to take care of the children. An American family. Or, you visit the room where nine people were shot to death in August as they raised their arms to praise God during a prayer meeting. Forty hours later, flies buzz over what lingers in cracks in the tile floor and bloody handprints mark the wall. An evangelical preacher who survived the slaughter that night said she saw a truckload of soldiers parked at the end of the street a hundred yards from the building and that the automatic rifle fire went on for fifteen minutes.
The claim that ninety percent of the dead are criminals seems at best to be self-delusion. In June , El Universal , a major daily in Mexico City, noted that the federal government had investigated only 5 percent of the first 22, executions, according to confidential material turned over to the Mexican Senate by the Mexican Attorney General. What constituted an investigation was not explained.
Two of them were inebriated and probably under the influence of some drug. They opened fire against a truck that drove along the road carrying eight members of the Esparza Galaviz family. One adult and two minors died…The soldiers arranged sacks of decomposing marijuana on the vehicle that had been attacked and killed one of their own soldiers, whose body was arranged at the crime scene to indicate that the civilian drivers had been the aggressors and had killed the soldier.
The CNDH also names the army as responsible for the shooting deaths of Martin and Brayan Almanza Salazar, aged 9 and 5, on April 3, , as they traveled to the beach in Matamoros with their family. The only thing noteworthy about these cases is that they ever became public knowledge. Many more victims and survivors remain silent—afraid to report what has happened to them to any Mexican official or news reporter.
Such incidents pass unnoticed in the US press and apparently do not capture the attention of our government. Nor does the fact that in the midst of what is repeatedly called a war against drug cartels by both the American and Mexican governments and press, Mexican soldiers seem immune to bullets. With over 8, Mexicans killed in alone, the army reported losses of thirty-five that year. According to Reporters Without Borders, a total of sixty-seven journalists have been killed in Mexico since , while eleven others have gone missing since Mexico is now one of the most dangerous places in the world to be reporter.
And possibly the safest place in the world to be a soldier. When there is a noteworthy massacre, the Mexican government says it proves the drug industry is crumbling. When there is a period of relative peace, the Mexican government says it shows their policy is winning. This, despite numerous incidents of grenades and other explosives being used in recent attacks in the states of Michoacan, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Guerrero, Sonora and many other places in Mexico. No one asks or answers this question: How does such an escalation benefit the drug smuggling business which has not been diminished at all during the past three years of hyper-violence in Mexico?
Each year, the death toll rises, each year there is no evidence of any disruption in the delivery of drugs to American consumers, each year the United States asserts its renewed support for this war. And each year, the basic claims about the war go unquestioned.
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Let us make this simple: no one knows how many are dying, no one knows who is killing them and no one knows what role the drug industry has in these killings. There has been no investigation of the dead and so no one really knows whether they were criminals or why they died. There have been no interviews with heads of drug organizations and so no one really knows what they are thinking or what they are trying to accomplish.
It is difficult to have a useful discussion without facts, but it seems to be very easy to make policy without facts. We can look forward to fewer facts and more unquestioned and unsubstantiated government claims. Bridget M. When patients with HIV infection also are addicted to opioids, treating both disorders simultaneously may help improve outcomes and reduce the spread of HIV or other infections transmitted through needle sharing or risky sexual behaviors associated with injection drug use.
But accessing such integrated care has sometimes been a challenge for such patients, who generally had to seek care for opioid abuse at addiction treatment centers and primary HIV care elsewhere. This could be logistically difficult and often led to delays in receiving care. Now, however, buprenorphine prescribing by HIV clinicians is offering patients the option of receiving treatment for both opioid addiction and HIV infection, an approach that a growing body evidence indicates benefits individual patients and public health.
Since , buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, has been available in the United States as an office-based treatment for opioid dependence. Methadone, a full opioid agonist, remains available through highly regulated, specialized treatment programs. And rural areas may have no specialty addiction programs at all within a reasonable distance.
Studies have suggested that patients with HIV infection and untreated opioid addiction often receive HIV treatment later in the course of their illness, may be less adherent to their antiretroviral therapy regimen, and may engage in behaviors such as unprotected sex or injection drug use that put themselves and others at risk of new infections. But treating patients for both HIV and drug use can improve such outcomes.
Although much of this research has focused on the effects of methadone, emerging evidence suggests that buprenorphine has similar benefits and may have a few advantages over methadone treatment for patients with HIV. A recent randomized trial found that office-based care can improve addiction-related outcomes for patients with HIV and opioid addiction and may lead to faster treatment for addiction Lucas GM et al.
Ann Intern Med. Gregory M. Lucas, MD, PhD, of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, and colleagues randomized 93 patients at a Baltimore HIV clinic to receive buprenorphine therapy at the clinic or to receive a referral to specialty addiction treatment elsewhere. Patients receiving buprenorphine in the clinic also had significantly fewer urine test results that were positive for opioids or cocaine and visited their HIV primary care clinicians more frequently. However, the researchers did not find differences in HIV-treatment participation or HIV treatment effects between the clinic-based vs referral groups.
The authors concluded that the improvements in addiction treatment may have been driven by streamlined access to care because patients referred to outside specialty addiction care may have experienced a delay in treatment initiation. The small sample size may have precluded identifying clinically significant differences in HIV treatment outcomes, they also noted. An analysis of pooled data from 10 sites participating in the HRSA program is under way.
David A. So far, he and his colleagues have demonstrated in a pilot study that an approach that uses a nurse or other staff member to help coordinate buprenorphine care by overseeing such tasks as urine testing, drug counseling, and medication monitoring can help to reduce drug use among HIV patients, has good retention rates, improves patient function, and promotes patient satisfaction Sullivan LE et al. Clin Infect Dis. But results of a French study suggest that integrated treatment of HIV and opioid addiction could allay such concerns.
The study found that retention in opioid substitution therapy, either buprenorphine or methadone, is associated with improved virologic outcomes in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and who had opioid use disorders Roux P et al. The study included 53 patients receiving buprenorphine, 28 receiving methadone, and 32 who were not receiving opioid substitution therapy. The median duration of opioid substitution treatment was 25 months.
Buprenorphine also appears to have fewer interactions with antiretroviral drugs than methadone. Elinore F. McCance-Katz, MD, PhD, professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, and her colleagues published an article reviewing drug interactions involving methadone and buprenorphine and other medications, including antiretroviral therapies McCance-Katz EF et al.
Am J Addict. Two HIV medications in particular, efavirenz and nevirapine, have been documented to trigger opiate withdrawal in patients taking methadone but not in patients taking buprenorphine, despite observations of reduced levels of both methadone and buprenorphine when these antiretrovirals were given to patients receiving these opioid therapies, noted McCance-Katz in an interview. A possible reason for the observed differences may be that methadone is metabolized to an inactive substance while buprenorphine is metabolized to norbuprenorphine, which also has opioid effects and may protect patients from experiencing opiate withdrawal, McCance-Katz said.
Elevated concentrations of buprenorphine have been documented in patients with opioid dependence and HIV taking atazanavir; such elevated levels were associated with cognitive impairment in a few HIV patients in one case study, while another study in non—HIV-infected patients found only increased drowsiness Bruce RD and Altice FL. Drug Alcohol Depend. Such elevations of methadone concentrations have not been documented with atazanavir. Integrating buprenorphine treatment into the HIV care setting has another potential advantage: it may be easier for clinicians to spot interactions between addiction and HIV therapies when patients receive buprenorphine treatment at their primary HIV clinic, McCance-Katz said.
For example, if a patient receives methadone at one clinic and antiretroviral therapy at another, there may be limited communication between clinicians at the 2 sites and adverse events may not be identified. But access to buprenorphine therapy in the HIV primary care setting in the United States may be limited. Reuter noted that psychiatrists and physicians specializing in addiction treatment were early adopters of office-based buprenorphine prescribing. A survey of about HIV clinicians Fam Med.
Fiellin noted that other BHIVES efforts have found that clinicians may feel they do not have adequate training and resources to provide addiction treatment but are interested in receiving additional training. The clinics that have implemented primary care buprenorphine care as part of BHIVES have received technical support during implementation, and over time their satisfaction with and sophistication at providing buprenorphine care have improved, he noted.
PCSS helps match new buprenorphine prescribers to more experienced mentors who work in similar settings, including HIV primary care. Reuter explained that the agency would like these centers to offer both buprenorphine and methadone, although the latter would require a center to be licensed as an opioid treatment clinic. For example, the average duration of methadone treatment is 6. Chaudhry emphasized that primary care buprenorphine treatment is not necessarily a replacement for specialty addiction treatment with methadone or buprenorphine.
For example, she noted that some patients may prefer to keep their addiction treatment separate from their HIV care. Lynn E. Sullivan, MD, and colleagues from the Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Conn, compared drug-related and sex-related risk behaviors in buprenorphine-treated individuals at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks Sullivan LE et al. J Subst Abuse Treat. Such benefits may be particularly important in regions of the world where HIV transmission is driven primarily by injection drug use.
The trial, which is enrolling about HIV-uninfected injection drug users, will randomize individuals to receive either buprenorphine plus naloxone for 1 year or detoxification with buprenorphine plus naloxone for up to 18 days with a second detoxification if necessary. Both groups will also receive counseling for HIV risk reduction. The study will assess cumulative HIV incidence and death and frequency of drug use and drug-related and HIV-related risk behaviors in the 2 groups.
Filed under: Uncategorized — Hinterlasse einen Kommentar Addictive drugs can profoundly affect social behaviour both acutely and in the long-term. Effects range from the artificial sociability imbued by various intoxicating agents to the depressed and socially withdrawn state frequently observed in chronic drug users. Understanding such effects is of great potential significance in addiction neurobiology.
Oxytocin regulates social affiliation and social recognition in many species and modulates anxiety, mood and aggression. Recent evidence suggests that popular party drugs such as MDMA and gamma-hydroxybutyrate GHB may preferentially activate brain oxytocin systems to produce their characteristic prosocial and prosexual effects. Oxytocin interacts with the mesolimbic dopamine system to facilitate sexual and social behaviour, and this oxytocin-dopamine interaction may also influence the acquisition and expression of drug-seeking behaviour.
An increasing body of evidence from animal models suggests that even brief exposure to drugs such as MDMA, cannabinoids, methamphetamine and phencyclidine can cause long lasting deficits in social behaviour. We discuss preliminary evidence that these adverse effects may reflect long-term neuroadaptations in brain oxytocin systems. Laboratory studies and preliminary clinical studies also indicate that raising brain oxytocin levels may ameliorate acute drug withdrawal symptoms. It is concluded that oxytocin may play an important, yet largely unexplored, role in drug addiction.
Greater understanding of this role may ultimately lead to novel therapeutics for addiction that can improve mood and facilitate the recovery of persons with drug use disorders. British Journal of Pharmacology , —; doi Kennedys und der In dieser Schilderung sind die Namen einzelner Personen, ihrer Institutionen und ihrer Beziehungen relativ unbedeutend. September beigetragen haben mag. Mehr zur Wirecard-Aktie. News von. Die 5 beliebtesten Top-Rankings. Nein, das kommt mir wie eine Verzweiflungstat vor.
Ein deutlicher Umbau ist richtig, aber Jetzt informieren. Zur klassischen Ansicht wechseln. Kontakt - Impressum - Werben - Presse mehr anzeigen. Aktien Prime Standard:. Wie bewerten Sie diese Seite? Problem mit dieser Seite? Anzeige X. Top News. Beliebte Suchen. DAX Euro US-Dollar. Deutsche Bank AG Wirecard AG Daimler AG Amazon Bayer BAY The Kings and Queens of the media finally overplayed their hand to the point where the people elected someone so powerful, so rich, and so independent that he has no fear at all of them.
Is he the first president that is seemingly owned by no one - not donors, or a party machine, not industry, and not newspaper editors. The media broke their contract with their readers, feeding them one-sided fawning advertising for Clinton dressed as "news". In return the people elected Trump, possibly one of the very few who could break the degenerate system.
He addressed everyone in the room, calling the media dishonest, deceitful liars. Absolventin der Elite-Uni Princeton. Noch vor This study looks at the positive environmental effects of carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions, a topic which has been well established in the scientific literature but which is far too often ignored in the current discussions about climate change policy. All life is carbon based and the primary source of this carbon is the CO 2 in the global atmosphere.
As recently as 18, years ago, at the height of the most recent major glaciation, CO 2 dipped to its lowest level in recorded history at ppm, low enough to stunt plant growth. This is only 30 ppm above a level that would result in the death of plants due to CO 2 starvation. It is calculated that if the decline in CO 2 levels were to continue at the same rate as it has over the past million years, life on Earth would begin to die as soon as two million years from now and would slowly perish almost entirely as carbon continued to be lost to the deep ocean sediments.
The combustion of fossil fuels for energy to power human civilization has reversed the downward trend in CO 2 and promises to bring it back to levels that are likely to foster a considerable increase in the growth rate and biomass of plants, including food crops and trees. Human emissions of CO 2 have restored a balance to the global carbon cycle, thereby ensuring the long-term continuation of life on Earth. This extremely positive aspect of human CO 2 emissions must be weighed against the unproven hypothesis that human CO 2 emissions will cause a catastrophic warming of the climate in coming years.
The one-sided political treatment of CO 2 as a pollutant that should be radically reduced must be corrected in light of the indisputable scientific evidence that it is essential to life on Earth. Heute steht das Unternehmen allein bei seinem Ziel, das es mit Bestimmtheit und Entschlossenheit verfolgt. Typische umweltliche Extremisten-Kampagne der Falschinformationen und der Agitation.
An einem Punkt im Jahre waren die falschen Behauptungen so ungeheuerlich, dass Resolute mit Klagen vor Gericht gegen Greenpeace drohte. His offer was made a month ago to his nearly 10, followers on Twitter EcoSenseNow and was re-tweeted to tens of thousands more, yet no one has taken the wager. Moore stated. If that is so then surely they believe CO 2 emissions will come down during the next ten years, as pledged by all the countries attending the meeting. Yet no one seems willing to put their money where their rhetoric is.
In recent years fossil fuel use and attendant CO 2 emissions have increased dramatically, especially in China and India, yet satellite and weather balloon data show little or no additional warming over the past 20 years. Moore denies claims that CO 2 is a pollutant and is skeptical that it will cause much warming of the climate.
The Earth's climate has warmed slightly over the past years since the peak of the Little Ice Age around Moore continued. It has been clearly demonstrated that increased CO 2 in the atmosphere is causing a 'greening of the Earth', especially in arid regions such as the Sahel in sub-Saharan Africa.
Patrick Moore explains why "climate change," far from being a recent human-caused disaster, is, for a myriad of complex reasons, a fact of life on Planet Earth. Patrick Moore explains why he helped to create Greenpeace, and why he decided to leave it. What began as a mission to improve the environment for the sake of humanity became a political movement in which humanity became the villain and hard science a non-issue.
Patrick Moore: From Greenpeace founder to nuclear defender. Japan has handled the crisis spectacularly, and not a single death's resulted yet from Fukushima. Despite a nightmarish earthquake and tsunami, the plant "poses no threat to us and so far poses no threat to the general population of Japan, who've all been evacuated from closeby and none of them have received anything like a harmful dose of radiation. Yet, if Greenpeace succeeds in irrationally frightening the world with Fukushima, the result will only be more pollution from burning fossil fuels.
Moore, co-chairman of the pro-nuclear Clean and Safe Energy Coalition,. On Tuesday, respected British environmentalist George Monbiot announced himself "converted" to supporting nuclear after Fukushima:. Compared to the net effects of fossil fuels, wind farms and solar panels, "atomic energy has just been subjected to one of the harshest of possible tests, and the impact on people and the planet has been small," he declared. The Sensible Environmentalist Dr. Patrick Moore en Why do they hate science, and why are they so miserable? The International Energy Agency has just said we have years of gas from shale.
India has thousands of square kilometers of ancient marine deposits, where the organic compounds are high from the rain of plankton from the waters. It's also rich in uranium - the sea level has sank, and picked up heavy metals - attached to organic matter in solution. It was not worth mining because we have shallower and richer ores closer to the surface. Haber Bosch is one of greatest breakthroughs in history; there was not enough nitrogen in the organic component of soil. Two-and-a-half billion people are alive now because of the Haber Bosch process.
In the shorter term we have got to stop using our own food as a fuel supply. There's our ability to modify genetically which may lead to an algae solution, there's a combination of modifying genetics and our already existing knowledge of things like Fischer Tropsch processes, and the thermo-chemical ability to transform materials and compounds.
Some of the biofuel companies are already burning waste wood - there's so much of it, natural wood waste, compared to corn and sugar and starch. I stress trees, because the leaves and needles of trees are the most efficient solar collectors. Algae grows fast, but then they die - but trees put on weight each year. If you look at the landscapes on earth, see how much of them are forested. The most important statistic is that plants convert more energy than humans consume - that's purely by photosynthesis. Putting solar panels over vast landscapes turns them into a deadzones, but putting forests over vast landscapes doesn't.
We don't have to grow monocultures in rows - you could put two or three species in there. The logical route to go here as oil stocks decline is battery power for light transport and biofuels for trucks buses and aircraft. The move to make battery-operated cars is very important - then we can use nuclear or other sources. We can start with delivery vehicles making journeys into the city, bringing all of the food into the stores. These can be battery operated, as they're on fixed routes, and regular schedules - so they can be charged.
For personal transportation think Renault's approach is the most practical. You wait four hours It's We're a tropical species. If you go to the Cryosphere Today website, you can see up-to-date figures for the ice extent. Look at Arctic Ice decline - then below they have Antarctic sea ice graph which shows a prominent increase in sea ice extent. We don't really know the historical sea ice extent in the Arctic, because ice doesn't leave a footprint. But the Arctic decline has been from 15 to 16 million km2 to It's not that large.
I do not believe we are capable of determining the extent to which our CO 2 is part of a trend in climate change. In 12 years, temperature hasn't increased - it's leveled since , which was the warmest year on record. So there's no increase in global average temperature, all the while we've been spewing more CO 2 every year over the previous year. If you look at CRU record from , you see a cooling period.
There's a global trend - this is Phil Jones' data set - a warming trend to 2k or This is problematic for several reasons. The word "most" implies 50 to per cent, a big range. Second, they use the phrase "very likely", which is not technically definable. It's not a calculation, it's not a statistic - it's a rhetorical construct that means "very likely 90 per cent" - but they've given number to all those terms.
If you look at the temperature curve from - there is an equal increase at same rate of change - the curve is at same steepness. But they're not claiming we caused that warming - that wouldn't be credible. There may be some human element to this, but in the IPCC view, none of those other factors matter, we're the only agent of change. I am fascinated by this idea of apocalypse, or that systems are fundamentally unstable. That didn't seem to be there with the first environmentalist campaigns against pollution or conservation in the s.
For me, I was involved because of the arms race, and the prospect of nuclear war. That really would have been an apocalypse, at least for large regions of the planet. Ever since then, that element has sought scenarios that allow an apocalyptic interpretation. Yet the resilience of the Earth system, its ability to absorb vast amounts of everything, is incredible. For example, the latest scare is ocean acidification - it's totally made-up and ridiculous.
Tomato growers inject CO 2 to make the tomatoes grow; salt water aquarists inject CO 2 to increase photosynthesis; and yet with coral we're told the opposite is true. The bleaching claim has a dubious pedigree - Ed. So you hear tipping point phrases. You hear about "death spiral" or "toxic sludge". But death was very close to us until our parents' generation; everyone grew up with it, and we had to cope with it.
When you add self-loathing, and you have the apocalypse being externalised, this is what you get. We have to stop this self-defeating approach: that - "we're going to die and we're to blame". I grew up in a small rural community, where the emphasis was on the practical, there was a can-do attitude to life: "Get it done". Part of this idea is the 'overshoot concept' - the idea that we have gone so far beyond our ability to support civilisation, that we're going to drop off the end of a cliff.
So what does keep you awake at night - what are reasonable things to be concerned about? Avian flu is the most likely disaster - but that could be resolved by changing agricultural practice in Asia. We have to separate animals, and us, and get some sanitation going on over there. Here we've changed our practices, but on Asia farms there's no antiseptic bath, no protocols, and just a barnyard of birds and animals that can pass germs. For the kind of environmental pessimism you describe to succeed, though, it requires we have an idea of a human that isn't fully human - a human that isn't adaptable, can't study science or invent technologies, or organise.
Which brings us down to the level of another species, just a very destructive species. I don't think most people share this view, they look at what we've achieved, and know there's something wrong with the "we're evil and we're all doomed" narrative. In response I say that, yes we are just another species, but we're a special one. We have self-awareness and technology.
I know other species are social, and have some kind of technology - ants build things too. When I was growing up the world was divided into two economies, before that it was divided into many. I'm optimistic because we have these incredible information technologies, genetic technologies, and nuclear technologies. Patrick Moore on Greenpeace and Anti-Nukes. Aujourd'hui euros, 1.
Roger Helmer en Home. In , serious scientists were warning of Global Cooling and the coming Ice Age. They were wrong. I think they're wrong again. There are two reasons to suppose that despite the eye-watering costs, our efforts to mitigate climate change will come to nothing even if you accept AGW theory. Those reasons are A Political: and B Scientific. If we in the UK were to shut down our economy entirely, our emissions reductions would be made up by growth in China in around twelve months.
China is building a new coal-fired power station every week, with India not far behind. It's also another million British families forced into fuel poverty. These price rises damage the prosperity of all of us. So there you have it. Our green climate policies are probably unnecessary, certainly ineffectual, and ruinously expensive. It's time to change course. The Lord Monckton Foundation en Home. Contrepoints fr Qui est J. Halt eine Anti-Utopie. Das sollte man sich merken.
Professor Seitz concluded: "I have never witnessed a more disturbing corruption of peer-review process than the events that led to this IPCC report. For most of the past seven years, those temperatures have actually been on a plateau. For the past year, there's been a sharp cooling. These are facts, not opinion: the major sources of these figures, such as the Hadley Centre in Britain, agree on what has happened, and you can check for yourself by going to their websites. Sure, interpretations of the significance of this halt in global warming vary greatly, but the facts are clear. Much of that funding since World War II has occurred because scientists build up public fears examples include fear of the USSR's superiority in weapons or space travel, of health problems, of environmental degradation and offer themselves as the solution to those fears.
The administrators who work with the scientists join in with enthusiasm: much of their own funding is attached to the scientific grants. Lindzen says this state of affairs favours science involving fear, and also science that involves expensive activities such as computer modelling. He notes we have seen "the de-emphasis of theory because of its difficulty and small scale, the encouragement of simulation instead with its call for large capital investment in computation , and the encouragement of large programs unconstrained by specific goals.
Lindzen believes another problem with climate science is that in America and Europe it is heavily colonised by environmental activists. Here are just two examples that indicate the scale of the problem: the spokesman for the American Meteorological Society is a former staffer for Al Gore , and realclimate. Later work by Ioannidis and colleagues suggests that these days journal editors are more likely to publish research that will make a splash than that which will not.
They do this to sell more copies of their publications and of reprints of papers in it. Ioannidis believes these publication practices might be distorting science. The Sydney Morning Herald en Truly inconvenient truths about climate change being ignored. But whether, on the basis of such evidence, it is wise for the world's governments to embark on some of the most costly economic measures ever proposed, to remedy a problem which may actually not exist, is a question which should give us all pause for thought.
If there is one scientist more responsible than any other for the alarm over global warming it is Dr Hansen, who set the whole scare in train back in with his testimony to a US Senate committee chaired by Al Gore. Again and again, Dr Hansen has been to the fore in making extreme claims over the dangers of climate change. He was recently in the news here for supporting the Greenpeace activists acquitted of criminally damaging a coal-fired power station in Kent, on the grounds that the harm done to the planet by a new power station would far outweigh any damage they had done themselves.
I, Captain Pachauri, declare this ship is unsinkable! Oder, wie die Klimahierarchie funktioniert. Dazu wurden wir, zum Lernen, u.
Inconvenient Truth for Al Gore. Oho, fragt man sich. Jetzt sind wir aber gespannt. Wir haben Schuld auf uns geladen. Hansens Behauptung, dass er damals zu optimistisch war, ist ein schlechter Witz. Die Temperaturen sind bei weitem nicht so aggressive angestiegen, wie Hansen sich das damals gedacht hatte siehe auch.
James Hansen of NASA, says there is now enough evidence to connect global warming to some of the extreme weather events of the recent past. Joseph Gazette in den Block diktiert hatte. Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario. Dann ist das CO 2 also doch nicht so wichtig?
Mauna Loa Methane Concentration timeseries. Major greenhouse gas trends. Hansen has blamed practically every weather event since on coal death trains, evil oil executives, or missing Arctic ice. Das vergangene Jahrzehnt war eines nie dagewesener Wetterextreme. Da werden Sie dann auch sehen, wie Hansen auf seine abenteuerlichen Thesen kommt:. Hansen reichen zum Erkennen eines Extremwettertrends ein paar Jahrzehnte. Dummerweise ist es aber gerade der El Nino, der empirisch nachgewiesen den Regen in die Region bringt.
To Some People. The Hansen piece is policy more than it is science, to be sure, and one can read it for the former. But facts should, and do, matter to some. The vision of a Midwest Dustbowl is a scary one, and the author appears intent to instill fear rather than reason. It appears that Hansen is completely uninterested in any climate data which he hasn't tampered with. His claims of permanent drought are not consistent with the US drought record, which shows a decrease in drought and increase in wetness since records started in Honors and awards. Nasa scientist: climate change is a moral issue on a par with slavery.
Time for Meds? The reference frame. Global warming increasing by , atomic bombs every day. Hansen's Death Trains - now with extra scary 'coal fallout'. Hansen hat in den Klimawissenschaften viel Schaden angerichtet und der Wissenschaft durch seinen Extremismus keinen Dienst erwiesen. Das war schon damals mit dem Stand der Wissenschaft in keiner Weise zu vereinbaren. Damit verbunden war ein Feldzug gegen die sogenannte "faschistische" und "bourgeoise" Genetik sowie gegen jene Biologen, die sich mit dieser Disziplin befassten.
Da kann einem der arme Kerl Hansen sogar schon fast wieder ein wenig leid tun. Auch Hansen hat mittlerweile gemerkt, dass man ihm nicht mehr bedingungslos folgt. The rise in carbon dioxide and other gases in the earth's atmosphere will have an earlier and more pronounced impact on global temperature and climate than previously expected, according to evidence presented to a Senate subcommittee today. Scientists and senators at a hearing by the Environmental Pollution Subcommittee agreed that the dangers of manmade changes in the atmosphere had moved from hypothesis to imminent reality and must be addressed quickly.
They said the rise in temperatures was expected to cause profound climatic changes and raise sea levels substantially. Witnesses at the hearing also testified that the ozone layer of the upper atmosphere, which protects the earth from the sun's ultraviolet light, is being rapidly depleted by manmade gases, and the increased ultraviolet radiation would result in a rise in skin cancer cases and other ecological damage. James E. Hansen of the Goddard Space Flight Center's Institute for Space Studies said research by his institute showed that because of the ''greenhouse effect'' that results when gases prevent heat from escaping the earth's atmosphere, global temperatures would rise early in the next century to ''well above any level experienced in the past , years.
Average global temperatures would rise by one-half a degree to one degree Fahrenheit from to if current trends are unchanged, according to Dr. Hansen's findings. Hansen said the global temperature would rise by another 2 to 4 degrees in the following decade. While the effect of small increases in global temperature is now unclear, Andrew Maguire, vice president of the World Resources Institute, a Washington research and policy group, said that the doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide that is foreseen would cause a rise of 3 to 8 degrees in temperature by the 's.
He said this would devastate agriculture in the United States and elsewhere, and would cause a rise in sea level of some 4. Earlier projections of warming trends had held that they would not occur before the middle of the next century. One of the reasons that scientists now expect faster and higher temperature rises is the emerging consensus that gases other than the carbon dioxide emitted by the burning of such fossil fuels as coal are playing a major role in the greenhouse effect.
The greenhouse effect is the name given to the phenomenon created when carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons and other gases accumulate in the atmosphere and prevent radiant heat from the sun that has reached the earth's surface from escaping back into space. Hansen and other scientists testifying today said there was now broad consensus among scientists that the greenhouse effect was speeding up the increase in global temperatures.
Less Urgency in In a report by the National Academy of Sciences said the greenhouse effect was a ''cause for concern,'' but concluded that there was time to prepare for its impact. The academy report projected a doubling of greenhouse gases by the third quarter of the next century. Hansen's research, however, found that if there is no change in the current rate of growth, the greenhouse gases would double by the late 's. A report by the Environmental Protection Agency three years ago said the warming trend could start by the 's and could reach as much as 4 degrees Fahrenheit by , but this was attacked by President Reagan's science adviser at the time, George A.
Keyworth, as ''unnecessarily alarmist. Today, the scientists and the senators on the subcommittee asserted that there must be national and international action now to mitigate and deal with the imminent effects of the atmospheric changes taking place as a result of human activity. Chafee Asks Early Action. Senator John H. Chafee, the Rhode Island Republican who is chairman of the subcommittee, quoted a recent assessment by the Department of Energy, which said, ''Human effects on atmospheric composition and the size and operations of the terrestrial ecosystems may yet overwhelm the life-support system crafted in nature over billions of years.
Senator Chafee said it would be too risky to wait until all the answers about atmospheric changes were known before taking action. He called for the Reagan Administration to take up the issue at the next international economic summit meeting and also at the President's next meeting with the Soviet leader, Mikhail S. While the scientists testified today that it would be some time before there was enough data to pinpoint regional climatic changes, it was considered likely that some of today's most productive agricultural areas would become too arid for farming.
They also testified that a ''hole,'' in which the ozone has been reduced by some 40 percent, has formed in the ozone layer over Antarctica. While many aerosol uses of chlorofluorocarbons have been banned in this country, their use in other applications is increasing, and they continue to be used in aerosols in other countries. Temperaturprognose der Hansen-Gruppe aus dem Jahr A de Zunahme der CO 2 -Emissionen um 1.
James Hansen's growing financial scandal, now over a million dollars of outside income. Antony Watts en Dr. This does not include six-figure income over that period in travel expenses to fly around the world to receive money from outside interests. As specifically detailed below, Hansen failed to report tens of thousands of dollars in global travel provided to him by outside parties - including to London, Paris, Rome, Oslo, Tokyo, the Austrian Alps, Bilbao, California, Australia and elsewhere, often business or first-class and also often paying for his wife as well - to receive honoraria to speak about the topic of his taxpayer-funded employment, or get cash awards for his activism and even for his past testimony and other work for NASA.
The real reason behind the global warming hysteria is and always has been, about the redistribution of wealth. If the planet really were in the throes of cataclysmic crises, as the climate change hysterics claim, then reducing carbon emissions, all carbon emissions , would be the key, regardless of whether the "polluter" is a developed or developing nation. As it stands, these so-called strict emission controls that the IPCC is promising are aimed primarily at wealthy nations, while those less wealthy get a pass. Take money from higher-income Americans and distribute the proceeds to the less fortunate.
Climate realists around the world have contended for years that the real goal of alarmists such as Nobel Laureate Al Gore and his followers is to use the fear of man-made global warming to redistribute wealth. On Monday, one of Gore's leading scientific resources, Goddard Institute for Space Studies chief James Hansen, sent a letter to Barack and Michelle Obama specifically urging the president-elect to enact a tax on carbon emissions that would take money from higher-income Americans and distribute the proceeds to the less fortunate. Hansen testified before a joint Congressional hearing that there was a strong "cause and effect" relationship between "current" climate conditions and emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Current conditions in were a big heat wave and drought in the eastern U. The public bit. Two days later, 70 percent of the respondents to a CNN poll agreed with the proposition that 's misery was caused by global warming. Yet in fact, no climate scientist can ever blame an individual weather event, like a heat wave or drought, on global warming. Hansen's testimony that year included a graph of annual temperatures, with a dramatic spike on the last point, the January-May temperatures.
Hansen's predictions were flatly wrong about the extent of global warming. Yet on the 20th anniversary of his original testimony, Hansen said that people "should be tried for high crimes against humanity and nature" for spreading doubts about the promised global warming holocaust. Excuse me, Inquisitor Hansen, but what exactly are their crimes against humanity?
Being demonstrably wrong about climate science? As odd as it may seem, while we have updated our technology for measuring atmospheric components like CO 2 , and have switched from surface measurement to satellites to monitor sea ice, Hansen and his crew at the space agency are fighting a rearguard action to defend surface temperature measurement against the intrusion of space technology.
For those new to the topic, the ability to measure global temperatures by satellite has only existed since about , and is admittedly still being refined and made more accurate. However, satellite measurement has a number of substantial advantages over surface temperature measurement:.
It is immune to biases related to the positioning of surface temperature stations, particularly the temperature creep over time for stations in growing urban areas. It is relatively immune to the problems of discontinuities as surface temperature locations are moved. It is much better geographic coverage, lacking the immense holes that exist in the surface temperature network. Anthony Watts has done a fabulous job of documenting the issues with the surface temperature measurement network in the US, which one must remember is the best in the world. Four years ago, the people with The Right Stuff sent this letter to NASA satellite deniers James Hansen and Gavin Schmidt, who are completely destroying the agency's reputation with their junk science.
We believe the claims by NASA and GISS, that man-made carbon dioxide is having a catastrophic impact on global climate change are not substantiated, especially when considering thousands of years of empirical data. With hundreds of well-known climate scientists and tens of thousands of other scientists publicly declaring their disbelief in the catastrophic forecasts, coming particularly from the GISS leadership, it is clear that the science is NOT settled.
The unbridled advocacy of CO 2 being the major cause of climate change is unbecoming of NASA's history of making an objective assessment of all available scientific data prior to making decisions or public statements. As former NASA employees, we feel that NASA's advocacy of an extreme position, prior to a thorough study of the possible overwhelming impact of natural climate drivers is inappropriate. We request that NASA refrain from including unproven and unsupported remarks in its future releases and websites on this subject. For additional information regarding the science behind our concern, we recommend that you contact Harrison Schmitt or Walter Cunningham, or others they can recommend to you.
Antony Watts en Mr. Hansen's response was, simply, "not interested. James Jim E. Katz wrote in his e-mail to Mr. Hansen, "we are hoping to host a debate on global climate change and its implications. Patrick Michaels has agreed to come, and my organization would like you to come and debate Dr. Michaels in Williamsburg.
The date is very flexible, and we can tailor the day of the debate completely to your schedule. We will be able to pay for your travel expenses and offer you an honorarium for your time. Please let me know if you would be interested. The Independent en Nasa scientist appears in court to fan the flames of coal power station row.
The Nasa scientist who first drew attention to global warming 20 years ago appeared in a British court yesterday as a key witness in support of climate change activists charged with damaging a power station. Greenpeace argues that under the Criminal Damage Act , its activists had a "lawful excuse" to cause the damage because they were seeking to prevent even greater damage being caused to property - such as flooding from rising sea levels and damage to species caused by climate change. The Independent en Cleared: Jury decides that threat of global warming justifies breaking the law.
In a verdict that will have shocked ministers and energy companies the jury at Maidstone Crown Court cleared six Greenpeace activists of criminal damage. Jurors accepted defence arguments that the six had a "lawful excuse" to damage property at Kingsnorth power station in Kent to prevent even greater damage caused by climate change.
The defence of "lawful excuse" under the Criminal Damage Act allows damage to be caused to property to prevent even greater damage - such as breaking down the door of a burning house to tackle a fire. Professor Hansen, who first alerted the world to the global warming threat in June with testimony to a US senate committee in Washington, and who last year said the earth was in "imminent peril" from the warming atmosphere, asserted that emissions of CO 2 from Kings-north would damage property through the effects of the climate change they would help to cause.
James Hansen, now. Vandalism in the name of ecological causes is now "ok" thanks in part to Dr. Now, encouraged by this "victory" that gives a sanction to eco-vandalism in the UK, how many more shall we see? And if one of these people is injured and kills themselves or others in the process of the next stunt? What then? Who is responsible?
James Hansen's forecast to Congress. Hansen's Congressional Testimony. During the very hot summer of , James Hansen sabotaged the air conditioning and told Congress that hot summer days were the new normal.
It was the ultimate junk science cherry-pick of an outlier during a downward trend. Rasool sagen neue Eiszeit voraus en U. Klimaskeptiker Info de James Hansen und S. Rasool sagen neue Eiszeit voraus. In der Washington Post erschien am 9. The Washington Post en U. The world could be as little as 50 or 60 years away from a disastrous new ice age, a leading atmospheric scientist predicts.
The warming of the planet is proceeding at a pace not experienced within the past 1, years, making it "very unlikely" to keep warming to 1. Recent research found that continuing current levels of carbon dioxide emissions for just five more years will eliminate any chance of restraining temperatures to a 1. NASA's top climate scientist says that the record temperatures are pushing the world into dire circumstances.
There's no period that has the trend seen in the 20th century in terms of the inclination of temperatures.
Festschrift für Hans-Bernd Schäfer zum 65. Geburtstag
We are not even yet making emissions cuts commensurate with keeping warming below 2C. Last year is currently the warmest year on record, itself beating a landmark set in People who think this is over are viewing the world through rose-tinted spectacles. The Guardian notes that Schmidt is the highest-profile scientist to effectively write-off the 1.
Ist die Temperaturssteigerung einmalig verglichen mit dem Temperaturanstieg seit der kleinen Eiszeit? Is the global temperature increase unique compared to the general temperature rise since the end of the Little Ice Age? Andy May Petrophysicist en Comparing early 20th century warming to late 20th century warming. Average near-surface temperatures of the northern hemisphere during the past