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However, he did resort to the Portuguese translation for comparison purposes.


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His attention to the latter, nowadays as rare as the original, was drawn by another prominent Orientalist, the famous Prof. Charles Ralph Boxer, who has dedicated great interest to Portuguese matters in the Orient, as we all know. There are still several other studies by foreigners in connection with this matter of the Vocabulary, but the work that best completes those afore-mentioned was the one presented by R. Wallace Thompson, former professor at the University of Hong Kong and a distinguished Hispanist who has also given a large contribution to the study of Portuguese Language and our Creole Dialects, namely the Hong Kong Macanese.

This author compared the words and expressions recorded in the Ou-Mun Kei-Leok Glossary with the corresponding current Portuguese terms spoken in Hong Kong, that is, the still active remainder of the old Dialect, brought to the neighbouring Colony by the families from Macao seeking residence soon after the British occupation in Families who, amidst the English Language that in fact they speak have preserved up to now their native 'tongue', with the exclusion of the younger generation.

This way, Thompson clarified many doubts raised by the intricate Chinese transcriptions and, at the same time, gave precious indications about the old Creole of Macao, through its remnants in Hong Kong. As we can understand, there are many studies on the 'old Language of Macao', while as far as the current Language is concerned, nothing was published until All that has been done so far are copies or simulations of the old texts that no longer correspond to the actual facts.

When we arrived in Macao in we also thought that the Creole Dialect, taught at the University, was the local popular Language. But, we soon found out how old-fashioned was our knowledge and how such Language, though different to that spoken in the Motherland at the same level urban-popular , was no longer the same revealed to us by Leite de Vasconcelos and his contemporaries. Since then and up to the present moment, due to closer contacts with the Motherland, the Dialect has been improving rapidly towards a greater approach to the current Portuguese, particularly with regard to the Vocabulary and pronunciation.

Notice, however, that the Language of the elderly is not yet identical to that of their children, that is, to those in their Fifties. The Language of the very old if they are not very educated, of course is almost unintelligible to a newcomer, while that of the average generation is understood almost immediately, although requiring some attention at first. On the other hand, the Language of the middle-aged is also not the same spoken by the children and youngsters, in other words by the student population.

If it is a fact that the other two Languages undergo a normal transition period, the consequent instability becomes manifest in the truly chaotic speech of the young population. This happens when they are alone with no prying ears close by. Or else they will solve the problem by speaking Chinese, popular Guangdongnese or 'mother tongue', all too familiar to both of them. But when they have to speak Portuguese during classes, especially the very young, they manifest the confusion in their minds with phrases such as: eu caiu Port.

Quem com os porcos se juntam, farelos comem Port: Quem com os porcos se junta, farelos come; or: If you lie down with dogs you get up with flees. We believe that only by the end of the next two or three generations will the Language adjust itself to new patterns. With the following series of chapters we do not wish to correct or criticize the present state of instability that characterizes the current Language of Macao. All we want is to give our modest contribution in the phenomena as it continues to reveal itself in this obscure land of ours - and to which we are so mysteriously attracted by its strange mixtures.

The building and development of any Language is a dramatic experience, as thrilling as a human history. As people do words have their own migrations and conquests, their fights for survival, their improvements and setbacks in space and time, their youth, old age and death. Often enough an apparent death, taking into account that a word that dies here may reappear somewhere else with a new form or a new sense, both of which may in turn change to give way to further new creations.

Linguistic Geography, establishing in geographical charts the area corresponding to a certain word, has led to surprising conclusions, not only from the linguistic point of view but also the historical and ethnographic as well. The study of words, in the abstract, brought about some unknown human problems, and the solving of others considered unsolvable until then.

Words are motivated by people, following peoples' trails and marking their presence, even where such presence has long been forgotten. Therefore, it is impossible to make the history of a people without the inclusion of a chapter dedicated to their Language; much less to have a profound knowledge of a Language without studying the people who created it.

However it will not be here that we shall retell the history of Macao, as it would not fit the sphere of this modest article. We will not even linger on the initial question, already much discussed and always so unclear, regarding the date and the conditions found by the Portuguese when they first settled here. We shall start from the undetermined moment when our pioneers felt, under their heavy boots, a sufficiently stable ground on which to settle with their families.

We shall try to identify what was the Language that followed the vertiginous days when the small trading post expanded and became a City; and what happened to such Language, since then and right through the centuries, up to the present days. We have heard, even from learned persons, that the Macanese Dialect was the result of a mixture of old Portuguese and Chinese Languages. This is today's notion of Colonial Dialect, a mixture of Languages. However, studies made by prominent philologists show that the processing of such Dialects did not consist essentially of a mixture of Languages, but rather the hasty and imperfect assimilation of a foreign Language by the native people, having in view the basic needs of communication with the colonizers.

But, the building of the Creole Language of Macao has a peculiar history, taking into account that not much was to be expected from half a dozen Chinese families living in the Territory, before our arrival, if in fact the Country was inhabited. Some historians say that only a few Chinese families lived here, others say that there were no permanent residents but only the floating population of seamen who would temporarily seek the port for shelter.

Whatever the case, it is obvious from its study that the foundation of the Dialect has nothing to do with the native Chinese. If it was at all influenced by the Chinese, such influence is much more recent than could be imagined. It goes without saying that the Dialect happened to assume its personal characteristics from the Macanese people's own lips, but it was a Language already in full progress here when it was first introduce, bought partly by the Metropolitan pioneers, mostly from Southern Portugal, thus contributing with their regional peculiarities: also, partly and mainly, by the heterogeneous population that came along with them.

In , according to Montalto de Jesus in his Historic Macao [1st edition: ], there were already nine-hundred Portuguese in the City, besides "several thousands of Malays, Indians and Africans, most of them domestic slaves. What sort of Portuguese was that, spoken by so many, we shall see right away. We have seen that the foundation of Macao was not followed by the sudden appearance of a 'free-spoken' Language, the basic means of communication with the native people, similar to what had happened in other Countries where the Portuguese were the first settlers. As all dominating peoples do, we imposed our Language wherever we settled, though using many of the natives words.

These natives, on the other hand, learnt our Language as is always the case of people who, with no grammatical studies, start to speak a foreign Language. Thanks to some short dramatic plays by Gil Vicente and his followers, who used the African slaves talk as a comical ingredient in their shows, we have an idea of what was the former Portuguese Language spoken by the colonized natives. It is odd that expressions such as nam sa cativo Port. Because of these and other common remnants that can still be found scattered over Portuguese speaking Countries, we can assume that such former Afro-Portuguese talk might have experienced a rather lasting state of sensitive constancy, at least until our settlement in India.

When the Portuguese arrived in Macao, almost a century later, already a more mature Language, enriched with various other vocables mainly from the first non-European inhabitants, had been established here. As there were native Africans among them, as described by Montalto de Jesus and other historians, such fact would partly explain certain similarities, surprising at first, between the old Creole of Macao and the Afro-Portuguese Creole Languages, mainly those from the Cape Verde islands.

It will even explain some coincidences with Brazil's popular talk, considering that this country took a large number of African labourers during its colonization. But only partly, as we have said, because certain phenomena frequent in other Creole Languages did not 'travel', but are the result of psychological principles identical to all peoples, such as the tendency to simplify things. Therefore, this tendency in Macao to conjugate verbs in one single form for all grammatical persons is not necessarily of African origin.

Another feature very common in Creole Dialects and something that can always be detected in the deficient assimilation of a foreign Language, is the confusion of grammatical genders.

"tentador" in English

This particular had already been revealed by the Negroes in Gil Vicente's plays and is still much alive in Macao. Many feminine words in current Portuguese are used in the masculine in the Dialect of Macao, and vice-versa. Frequently they have no definite gender and are either masculine or feminine depending on the fancy of whoever is talking. This exasperates any teacher of Grammar, but the linguist will simply consider that the grammatical gender, as far as the inanimate nature is concerned, is a mere arbitrary creation established according to each persons own liking, for whatever reason.

Furthermore, as time goes by, there are changes in the gender of many words in one Language, such as fim end and mar sea , which in former Portuguese used to be of the feminine gender: a fim presently: o fim - masculine gender; or: the end , a mar presently: o mar - masculine gender; or: the sea , same as in French: la fin, la mer. This being the case, we can understand, in Macao, people may say caiu na mar Port.

Surely, this must be the case of Chinese influence, considering that they make no distinction of gender in pronouns. One day, a Chinese mother's little boy from Primary School was telling me about a family problem, and repeatedly said ele We have said that the Macanese Dialect, even from the very beginning, had already excelled the Afro-Portuguese and had been largely enriched with vocables from various sources. It is clear that the majority of these words, the basis of such relative richness in vocabulary, were Portuguese, the Portuguese spoken at the time, that had already grown strong roots in our Colonies of India and Malacca, later coming to Macao.

That is why many of the Dialect's vocables and grammatical forms that seem so strange to us now, are nothing but reminiscences of the old sixteenth century and even medieval Portuguese Language. Let us not forget that the main part of our colonizers were not the learned people of the menfolk, whose Language, besides revealing some small differences to the Motherland's Dialect, also had an archaic character - an ever-so common factor in popular Language.

It is even possible that Indo-Portuguese may have been the current Language during the early stages of Macao's foundation. There are many traces, either in expressions of Indian origin, or in our own words with similar pronunciation here and in India, probably because that is where they came from. However, in the Creole texts of the nineteenth century the old ones that still prevail, as we have seen words of Malay origin are more frequently found. This should not come as a surprise considering that, due to a greater proximity to Malacca, the long term relations with this City were undoubtedly much closer than those with India.

Let us bear in mind that Malacca was conquered by Afonso de Albuquerque almost half a century before the foundation of Macao. The lexical variety of the Portuguese Language spoken in Macao had been improved, in the course of time, with the introduction of some foreign European terms, especially English from Hong Kong. Strange as it may seem, Chinese influence in the primitive Creole was minimum, with a substantial increase in recent years. Quite natural though, considering that in a large number of today's Macanese families, the mother is Chinese.

And, as we know, it is always the mother, with her exemplary contribution to society, who has the greatest influence in a Language, a social phenomenon by excellence. Here we come to a question that has not been discussed, but is far from having a mere historical interest. However, such assumption cannot be confirmed either by the testimony of the Language or by what historians say with regard to the original relations with Chinese people.

Even after the achievement of a mutual trust between the two people, there must have been a period of time before a Chinese woman would willingly accept to couple with a 'foreign devil'. So, if they were not Chinese, or mostly Metropolitan, for obvious reasons, then who were the first wives and mothers in Macao? The answer is given by the Country's Language.

Such vocables undoubtedly reveal the woman and are an indication that the first wives and women of a large number of the founders of Macao must have come from Malaysia. Besides, we know that a large number of Portuguese people got married in Malacca then. Soand so, married in Malacca [ Of course, there were then women of other races as well, including Chinese and even Japanese.

But the majority seem to have been the lovely brunettes from Malaysia and nearby islands. Their remote descendants must be proud of them, of those brave women willing to follow men of a different race to a common strange land, a more or less hostile land. Here, their traditional beauty and tenderness must have greatly contributed to soothe the harsh-ness of their husbands' lives in those days. We have referred to Vocabulary as a curious feature of the Macaista Dialect, by revealing this Country's cosmopolitism during the various stages of its life, a cosmopolitism that did not prevent a determined conservatism of the old Portuguese legacy.

Nevertheless, it is not the Vocabulary that defines a Dialect or even a Language, but rather its phonetic and morphologic characteristics. As far as phonetics of Macao's Dialect is concerned, there are many differences in relation to Lisbon's or Coimbra's pronunciation. But many of such particularities, especially with regard to vowels, can also be found in the provincial speech of the Motherland. Similar diphthongizations must have surely been noticed by any educated person, with regard; to Brazil's half-breed and negroe speech, so realistically handled by the modern Brazilian writers.

I can still remember a popular march, familiar to many others, sung by Lurdinha Brasil, with the following refrain:. This example, and the detection in Brazil, obviously not influenced by Macao, of the same diphthongization such words where the last vowel is "a", "e" and "o", leads us to believe that such pronunciation formerly comprised a much larger area than it does nowadays;. Orally, an even more important fact is the deletion of the sound "r" in all verbs in the infinitive and, in a general way, in every word ending in "r".

But the general deletion of the "r" in all or almost all of our Creole Dialects, in addition to the fact that in some of the Indo-Portuguese Creoles all ending sounds fall as in minh Port. At a first glance, the only phonetical characteristics that seem to be due to Oriental influence, probably Malay, are the tones "dj" and "tch" still used by the elderly in words such as djambo Mac. But it is very difficult to prove such influence, at least not until a study of the Portuguese speech and Dialects has been completed. We have no definite information as to our overseas Dialects. Some of them, under the pressure of cultivated Language, have vanished completely or almost so from Portugal, but others are still very active indeed.

We could mention quite a few examples, but we do not wish to prolong this matter any further. The main changes, what are we shall see in the next chapter. The most important and characteristic change in the chapter of morphology is the forming of the plural, which in old Creole and Malay-Portuguese Creole, was achieved by a process called 're-duplication', that is, by repeating the noun. The indigenous influence is more Malay than Chinese.

Apart from one or another particular case, such as this, the changes introduced in our Grammar by the Macaista Creole are more or less identical to other Creoles, all of them submitted to the urgent simplification of a particularly complex morphology. Anyway, the same thing happened to Creole Dialects of other European Languages. In Macao and likewise in certain African Creoles and in Malacca, this method of periphrase gained curious aspects, especially in what pronouns are concerned. In order to emphasize the idea of possession, the possessive sua yours - feminine gender was attached to pronouns and nouns related to the possessor.

Dança de sedução

And so, ele sua Port. The tu familiar "you" was never used and must have been introduced very recently in Macao's speech, and is still rarely used today. The confusion brought about by its present use will be looked at later on. In spite of the fact that the tu familiar intimate and affectionate was not used in close relationships there were nevertheless many tender and very original diminutives.

Instead of being English 'imported' or 'hired', as is currently done, the old Macanese people created their own 'nomes de casa' 'home' names, nicknames [or hypocorisms] for all Christian names.

I rounded up from a single poem, transcribed and recorded by Marques Pereira, the following ones:. Finally, we will transcribe some examples of the old Dialect which will undoubtedly give a much better idea than any other personal comment on the matter. We shall not linger on texts that are not of popular origin, no matter how gracefully they were written by experts of the Dialect. Instead we shall resort to some more original works old Macanese folklore, now definitely dead and buried, following the 'pre-radio-record playing' generation who nursed it.

Now let us observe the following four lines' strophe, still remembered by some of the elderly, and given as an example of the Language of Macao:. The second version is best known, but I think that it's only a parody of the first. In the first strophe the two last verses explain what will be given: cookies and delicacies from Macao. In the second strophe, instead of cookies and delicacies, it mentions, for a laugh, that: "Punches and slaps are things that shall not nadi be in short supply!

As we have previously seen, there are many texts available to anyone who wishes to have a better idea of the old Language of Macao, if only to savour the picturesque and the naive wit of its expressions, or the keen humoristic spirit revealed in some of those texts. It is a fact that such texts, as we have also seen, are somewhat recent and only give us an idea of last century's Dialect. Information on earlier centuries is scarce.

But it would be precisely in the nineteenth century that the Dialect was to reach its utmost vitality and individuality, once the former close relations with India and Malaca had been eased, and still maintaining a considerable isolation from the Motherland. In the last fifty years the Dialect has definitely been loosing ground.

If it has not completely disappeared yet, considering that its reminiscences stick obstinately to current Language, it is condemned to be a 'dead' Language within a few decades. Even among the old Portuguese community of Shanghai 10 and the one now existing in Hong Kong which, for obvious reasons, did not keep up with Macao's evolution, the Dialect will also be loosing its vitality.

Forming small minorities within the much larger English speaking communities, most necessarily they adopt such idiom as their current Language and study it accordingly. Something that has swiftly yielded the influence of modern times, in the Dialect, was, as we have said, the folklore. That is a characteristic that is being swept from the face of the Earth, but Macao, in its isolation, could have kept that very old legacy, as it did with others.

It could have even increased it, so much was its poetic and musical vocation. However, it does lack the creative spiritual ingenuity so evident in the riddles, strophes and ballads of the old days, like the ones previously mentioned as well as the following one:. Some of these ballads have been published, with musical annotations, by Marques Pereira and in all of them an attempt was made to reproduce the pronunciation of the words as accurately as possible.

Such a peculiar tone must have been and still is one of the most typical features of the 'old tongue'; and probably was the most original feature that has been bequeathed from one generation to the next. Having closely compared the Language spoken by people of various ages, from the elderly to the school children, we can say that the greatest similarity to be found among them is precisely that peculiar inflection of the words. Whoever has had the opportunity of hearing it in Macao, will surely distinguish the genuine Macanese Language in the farthest corner of the World.

If today's current Language is no longer the same as the one spoken in the last century, though maintaining past features, one may ask: what sort of evolution has the Dialect undergone in relation to today's speech? First, with regard to the renewal of the Vocabulary.

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Secondly, in certain phonetic and morphological structure changes. A large number of vocables have fallen into disuse, being substituted by their corresponding ones in current Portuguese. Do not think, however, that the Vocabulary of today's speech has been perfectly identified with current Portuguese. To give an idea of what it still has of the original Vocabulary, here is a small list of words heard during talks with some local people:. Normally it should be bicho do mel lit. Chinese weighing measure, corresponding to approximately half-a-kilo.

These words cate, tael and pico, introduced all over the Orient by the Malay, the values of which would vary according to each Country, were used by the Portuguese Orientalist writers since the sixteenth century.

Therefore, they are very old in Macao, but are still used in everyday trade. Rice, for instance, as well as almost all food products, are still sold by the cate. The word is a hybrid deviation of the Guangdongnese: ch'ong that has the same sense combined with the Portuguese suffix "ar". With this meaning the word was commonly used by Portuguese writers of the sixteenth century, mainly by the historians of the Discoveries, but the expression is normally used in Portugal when referring to the former Arabs from Mauritania North Africa.

Thus the expression tancareira, rarely used in the masculine. The expression tancar is recent and must be the result of cultivated Language, assuming it lacked the final "r". Even without the inclusion of many other original Chinese expressions, we could give a much longer list of examples commonly used by Macanese people today. This does not mean that there were no such expressions in the old Dialect as well, but they were not as many as in current Language.

They are mainly names of fruits, vegetables, seasonings and some much appreciated Chinese dishes, or typically regional objects, names which not always have the corresponding adequate word in Portuguese. For example the word faichis, so precariously translated into Portuguese as pauzinhos lit. Nevertheless, there are many cases in which the Portuguese term is perfectly acceptable, and better still, is well known. In any case, the Chinese expression is more familiar and consequently used more frequently. However, in spite of foreign vocables, Portuguese-fashioned or not, as well as one or another of the former Portuguese Language still in use, the fact is that the present day Macanese lexicon is not as specific as that of other provincial areas in the Motherland.

Most of the current Vocabulary is identical to its Portuguese counterpart. A group of some of the most distinguished Macanese intellectuals of the Forties and Fifties. Left to right. This is not exactly the right place in which to give a detailed and methodic explanation of what the current Language's pronunciation and Grammar in Macao may be. The first and most evident is exactly the instability of those same characteristics, the instability peculiar to the present state of Language transition.

As far as phonetics is concerned, there is not, so to say, a 'tone', especially vocal, pronounced identically under the same circumstances, and this happens with some consonants as well. And it does not apply only to different inflections from one individual to another, but also with an individual pronouncing different tones where one would expect to hear them over and again in the same tonality.

Consequently, anyone pronouncing "dj" and "tch" in old-fashioned words, will eventually say "j" and "ch" in words such as janela window , cheio full , and fechar to close. Special reference shall be made to the values of the letter "r". The pronunciation of the Portuguese "r" has always been an obstacle to all overseas Dialects.

In Portugal, children also have some difficulty in pronouncing the "r", using instead the "1". In Macao such difficulty was felt for a longer period of time, until and during school age, probably aggravated by the common habit of speaking Chinese during tender age. Adults, however, have no difficulty in pronouncing our "r", double or mild. The problem is how to distinguish them. The general tendency is to often pronounce the double "r" as a mild "r", which we will formally represent by: "r". Consequently, we have the pronunciations tera Port.

On the other hand, the conception that this tendency is incorrect leads to precisely the opposite tendency, the unconscious ultra-correction, that induces one to pronounce arrame Port. Definitely not an ultimate refinement, because it may very well happen that such a rule may be turned inside out by replacing the "rr" for a simple "1".

Ginza (Anitta Remix)

Such an example was given to me, sometime ago, with the reply of a thirteen year old boy. Having noticed that he was not feeling quite well one morning, and asking him what he had eaten for breakfast, he replied with the utmost confidence:. Gracious me! Pure agony! What an idea to eat rubber? My worries were over only when, after a long interrogation, I came to realize that it was: bolacha!

Anyway, in spite of these indecisions, things seem to be moving towards normal pronunciation, or at least as close as possible. Certain details of the old Creole have already been completely revoked. Nobody, with the exception of the elderly, will still say velo Port.


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Likewise, and from the grammatical point of view, the conflict between old and new habits leads to constant changes, thus preventing the settling of a current Language pattern. In this context, the most consistent legacy of Dialectal past is given with the extinction of the plural in nouns and adjectives, with the disregard for grammatical genders, and the utmost simplification of verbal declension and syntactical disposition.

In addition, the regional airline SATA provided flights between Lisbon-Ponta Delgada-Lisbon, for a period of ten months to support the production team. Another inter-island flights, as well as connections between Lisbon and Toronto were also completed between January and August. The accident was filmed on the road atop of the Sete Cidades massif, overlooking the Lagoa das Sete Cidades , at the scenic overlook of Vista do Rei. Jaime is a poor farmer's son and Beatriz the wealthy heiress to a fortune, but secretly over time they begin a clandestine romance under fear of her family.

Jaime and Beatriz eventually decide to runaway to Canada, after her family discovers their intentions. But, her family threatens Jaime's imprisonment under trumped-up charges of kidnapping minors. Jaime therefore escapes to Canada by himself, while Beatriz promises to join him when she becomes legal age.

Each writes letters of their dreams and future intentions, but, neither receive these letters. They are convinced that each has forgotten the other. Then, Beatriz receives a visit from Alice Adriana Moniz , who states that she is carrying Jaime's child, and was convinced of his "betrayal".

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Behind this intrigue was Henrique Medeiros Rui Drummond , a neighbour and would-be pretendant to Beatriz. But, Henrique's motives were never realized, as Beatriz eventually married another. Jaime continued to wait for letters that never arrived, until he eventually heard that Beatriz had married. Yet, determined to seek his dreams, he continued to work hard and raised a fortune, established a family with an Azorean immigrant. Both Beatriz and Jaime decided to forget their young loves.

But, 30 years later, their lives and positions had changed. Jaime becomes a millionaire and Beatriz's family in bankruptcy. Fruit of failed business ventures, Beatriz's principal income comes from her family's plantation and tea factory. Awash in debt, Beatriz accepts the sale of the properties and sets a meeting with the unknown Canadian investor to make a proposal. On the day of the meeting, Jaime and Beatriz encounter in the street.